News Board: (1) Volume 6 Issue 12 Out now (2) Calls For Papers Volume 7 Issue 1 (25-Jan-2018) (5) Hard Copy Also available on Demand
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Volume 6, Issue 12

31-Dec-17

Open Access Journal

Volume 6, Issue 12

Impact Factor 4.428

1) Evaluation of Government Micro Crediting Strategy on the Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises: Case of Women Enterprise Fund in Kenya
Author’s Details: (1)Tom Ongesa Nyamboga(2)DR. Walter Okibo Bichanga (3)Prof Edwin Odhuno
(1)Ph.D. Candidate, School of Business & Economics, Mount Kenya University
(2)Deputy Principal, and Senior Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kisii Campus (3)Vice Chancellor, Mount Kenya University, Kigali Campus

Abstract:
Women are important elements in the economic advancement of many countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) regards women as essential components of economic development. Despite this, women small-scale traders do not have easy access to micro-crediting opportunities for their economic activities. As such, they have low business performance. It is against these circumstances that the Kenyan government introduced Women Enterprise Fund (WEF) as a micro-crediting strategy to boost women small and micro enterprises (SMEs) in the country. However, most women in their capacity as small-scale traders, continue to experience inadequate access to credit. The specific objective of this study was to assess the influence of crediting strategy of WEF on the growth of SMEs in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population constituted women group beneficiaries. A sample size of 335 respondents was selected from a target population of 2032 using cluster sampling and simple random sampling. Structured interviews were used to collect primary quantitative data. The collected data was edited, coded and categorized into appropriate themes befitting the research variables. These data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by the aid of SPSS version 20-computer software. The study used ANOVA and regression analysis to establish the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable. Microsoft Excel was used to generate appropriate graphs, charts, and figures. The findings of this study will help the government of Kenya and other stakeholders in  developing  sound  business strategies which might help them to create and sustain successful business ventures so as to help achieve Kenya’s vision 2030 and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The findings of the study established a positive and significant relationship between crediting strategy and growth of SMEs. The study, therefore, recommends the government to increase loan sizes to women beneficiaries and implement fully the constitution and other legislation on gender parity to empower women to enjoy and exercise their economic rights. The study suggests similar research in other counties in Kenya.
Key Words: Women Enterprise Fund, Crediting Strategy, SMEs

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[Page 01-15]
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2) Evaluation of Government Micro Crediting Strategy on the Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises: Case of Women Enterprise Fund in Kenya
Author’s Details: (1)Tom Ongesa Nyamboga (2)DR. Walter Okibo Bichanga (3)Prof Edwin Odhuno
(1)
Ph.D. Candidate, School of Business & Economics, Mount Kenya University (2Deputy Principal, and Senior Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kisii Campus(3)Vice Chancellor, Mount Kenya University, Kigali Campus

Abstract:
The implementation of micro-crediting strategy helps to boost the performance of women-owned and operated Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs). The growth of SMEs is reflected when there are high sales, job opportunities, profits and sustainable business activities. Despite this, women entrepreneurs lack access to micro-crediting strategies to enhance their economic activities. The Kenyan government introduced Women Enterprise Fund (WEF) as a micro-crediting strategy to boost women SMEs in the country. Each constituency in Kenya is allocated Kshs.2 Million each year. In spite of this effort, assessment of WEF indicates variation in the utilization and repayment of the fund in which case some constituencies utilize the loan well while others don’t. Most women entrepreneurs have weak social capital. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence government micro-crediting strategy on the growth of women SMEs. The specific objective of this study was to assess the influence of social capital strategy on the growth of small and micro enterprises in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population constituted women group beneficiaries. A sample size of 335 respondents was selected from a target population of 2032 using cluster sampling and simple random sampling. Structured interviews were used to collect primary quantitative data. The collected data was edited, coded and categorized into appropriate themes befitting the research variables. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by the aid of SPSS version 20-computer software. The study used ANOVA and regression analysis to establish the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable. Microsoft Excel was used to generate appropriate graphs, charts, and figures. The findings of the study were that: there was a positive and significant relationship between social capital strategy and growth of SMEs. The study recommended the promotion of awareness campaigns on WEF group formation to boost social capital in the country.
Key Words:
Women Enterprise Fund, Social Capital Strategy, SMEs
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3) Gravity Based and Core Strengthening Exercises on Ankylosing Spondylitis – An Evidence Based Study
Author Details:Dr.S.S.Subramanian, M.P.T (Orthopaedics), M.S (Education), M. Phil (Education), Ph.D. (Physiotherapy). The Principal, Sree Balaji College Of Physiotherapy, Chennai – 100. Affiliated To (Bharath) University, BIHER Chennai – 73.

Abstract:
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) a progressive disease limiting physical function and reducing the quality of life is increasing globally, nonpharmacological means with physiotherapy plays a greater role in subjects with AS. Aims & Objectives of this original case study was to analyze the gravity base exercises, core exercises on AS using BASFI index. Materials & Methodology: This study subject was aged 38 years male treated in this study with specific exercises using physioball where gravity was used to mobilize joints and core exercises 5 years from 2012-2017, Results: Pre and post BASFI were analyzed with statistical means with P<.01 Conclusion: outcome of this study findings can be extended for larger subjects with AS and validated
Keywords:
Sacroillitis, BASF Index, HLAB 27, Vital Capacity, Kyphosis Rheumatology
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4) Influence of Relationship Marketing on Customer Satisfaction among Selected Banks in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis
Author’s Details: 1Dada, Olumide Gbenga and 2Enitilo, Olalekan
1College of Health Sciences and Technology, Epe Road, Ijero Ekiti, Council Affairs Unit of the Registry 2Best Solution Polytechnic, Akure, Ondo State, School of Business Studies, Department of Business Administration and Management

Abstract:
This study examined the influence of relationship marketing is related to customer satisfaction among selected bank customers in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis. Four objectives were stated for the study. These objectives were targeted towards assessing the effect of trust, empathy, bonding reciprocity and customer satisfaction among bank customers in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis. Primary data were sourced through the use of a structured questionnaire on a carefully selected sample of 400 out of the 445,405 bank customers in Ado Ekiti metropolis as at December 2016 using stratified sampling techniques. Logit regressions were adopted to measure objectively. The study found that effect of empathy on customer satisfaction (β = -1.6953, z = -7.09), have a negative and significant effect on customer satisfaction and effect on Customer satisfaction and the relationship between reciprocity and customer satisfaction (β = 2.1147, z = 8.38). The study concluded that that reciprocity of the banks treat their customers well and also looks out for the interest of their customers.
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5) Life Syllabus: A New Remedy for Iranian EFL Learners’ Aggressiveness: Socio-Psychological Perspective
Author Details: Mustapha Hajebi-Department of Education Bandar Abbas, Iran Dr. Fazlolah Samimi Department of English, Bandar Abbas branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Abstract:
This study investigated the effectiveness of Life Syllabus for decreasing aggressiveness of Iranian EFL students. The purpose of this study was to see whether there was any difference between Life Syllabus when a teacher used it in the classroom to reduce aggressiveness or not. A total of 206 Iranian EFL learners from four high schools in Bandar Abbas, Iran take part in this study. A quasi-experimental research approach with an interview followed in this study. A pre-test and post-test with the control and experimental group conducted to get participants’ performance before and at the end of using aggressiveness. The study lasted for one term with the naturalistic use of Life Syllabus for the experimental group. The comparison between the students’ scores showed that there was a significant difference in the final performance of two groups. Therefore, this study supports the idea that Life Syllabus reduces the EFL learners’ aggressiveness. As Life Syllabus proved to be useful with Iranian EFL learners, EFL teachers also can adopt the technique in their classes to advance their students’ language learning
Keywords: Life Syllabus, Aggression, Aggressive Behavior
, EFL
[Download Full Paper] [Page 49-56]
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6) Pre-Emptive Budgetary Process: An Antidote for Profitability
Author Details: (1)Lawal Babatunde Ph.D*, (2)Dada John (3)Agbatogun Taofeek (4)Oladipo Dotun
(1)Department of Accounting & Finance, McPherson University Ogun State,(2)Department of Accounting & Finance, McPherson University Ogun State,(3)Department of Accounting, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State,(4)Department of Economics, Osun State University, Osogbo.

Abstract:
In manufacturing companies, the relevancy of pre-emptive budgetary process is significantly important. It serves as a standard to evaluate the actual result with the objective. Hence, this study examines and establishes modalities of which budgetary process can be used as a tool for profit maximization in a manufacturing company, with a definite reference to Coca-Cola Company. The main hypothesis tested examines the effect of budgetary process on profit maximization of a manufacturing company, (Coca-Cola Company). Data was collected using both Primary and Secondary data. In order to achieve robust findings, a KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions) quantitative approach was adopted in which questionnaires’ survey was administered. The Primary data was collected from the organization’s personnel’s and stockholders in Coca-Cola Company. The data collected/retrieved through the questionnaires were analyzed using statistical tool: the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The SPSS was also used to determine the relationship between the variables (Budgetary Process and Profitability). The findings show that budgetary process is an important tool for profit maximization in manufacturing Company. Based on the findings of this research, it is highly recommended that all organizations should endeavour to execute an effective budgetary process. This process will not only create or enhance organization profitability, but will also stimulate the consumers’ patronage and stakeholders’ satisfactions.
Keywords: manufacturing company, budgetary process, pre-emptive, knowledge, attitude, perceptions
[Download Full Paper] [Page 57-71]
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7) Rare Association of Childhood Bronchiectasis with VACTERL Anomalies; a Case Report
Author’s Details: (1)Dushantha Madegedara (2)Asela Rasika Bandara (3) R.M.D.H.M.RATHNAYAKE
(1)(2)(3)(4)Samadara Nakandala-
(1)(2)(3)(4)Respiratory Unit 2, Teaching Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka
Corresponding Author-
Dushantha Madegedara ,Consultant Respiratory Physician-dmadegedara@yahoo.com 

Abstract:
VACTERL association is a sporadic non-random cluster of multi-organ congenital anomalies. It is an acronym that describes the association of vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac defects (C), tracheoesophageal fistula (TE), renal (R) and limb (L) anomalies. Three or more anomalies should be present to make the diagnosis of VACTERL association.Bronchiectasis is an uncommon respiratory disease in childhood. It is often associated with underlying aetiology. Bronchiectasis has been described in association with VACTERL associations extremely rarely.We report an 8-year-old girl with known multiple congenital anomalies including tracheoesophageal fistula, atrial septal defect and imperforate anus presented with recurrent respiratory infections since 06 months of age, who was diagnosed with bilateral bronchiectasis later. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis in association with VACTERL anomalies was made following exclusion of specific aetiology with extensive investigations.This case demonstrates the rare association of bronchiectasis with VACTERL anomalies.
Keywords: VACTERL association, bronchiectasis
[Download Full Paper] [Page 72-77]
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8) Two Year Follow up Post Laparoscopic Hysterectomy with Core Exercises on Obesity and QOL – Evidence Based Study
Author’s Details: (1)Dr. Kala, M.D., DGO-Professor of Obstetrics & Gynaecology-Meenakshi Medical College & Research Institute-Enathur, Kanchipuram, TamilNadu(2)Dr.S.S.Subramanian, M.P.T (Orthopaedics), M.S (Education), M. Phil (Education), Ph.D. (Physiotherapy).The Principal,Sree Balaji College Of Physiotherapy, Chennai – 100. Affiliated To (Bharath) University, BIHER Chennai – 73.

Abstract:
An increased reports of hysterectomy were globally recorded. Weight gain following this procedure has an impact on the knee, back pain and quality of life. Aims & Objective of this presentation was to analyze the impact of core strengthening exercises on obesity and quality of life post hysterectomy. Materials & methodology: This study subject was treated from August 2015 until September 2017 with nonpharmacologic means of core strengthening exercises using Physioball with 15 specific exercises of twice a week frequency. Pre and post BMI, WC and QOL were recorded and analyzed with due statistical means Results: with P<.01 on BMI, WC and QOL as significant statistically, on obesity and enhanced quality of life using core strengthening exercises Conclusion: Outcome of this study findings can be extended to other post gynecological surgeries to maximize their quality of life.
Keywords:
Quality of Life, Hysterectomy, Laparoscopy, Core Strengthening Exercises
[Download Full Paper] [Page 78-81]
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9) In-Home Food Waste Analysis in the Case of Tirana City, Albania-A Descriptive Approach
Author’s Details: (1)Myslym Osmani- (2)Arben Kambo-(3)Adelida Osmani-Ergen (1)(2)(3)Agricultural University of Tirana, ALBANIA

Abstract:
The goal of this research is identifying major drivers or factors that influence food waste by final consumers in the urban area of Albania. In this study data for 335 randomly selected households in Tirana city are collected by face-to-face interview. A descriptive research method, such as means, groupings, and statistical graphs, is used. To characterize the amount of waste, as waste variables are used the value and mass of food thrown. In addition, the frequency of throwing food (how many times per week households throw away food) has also been used as a proxy variable for food waste. Household income, size of family, concern about food waste, buying more than needed, cooking more than needed, frequency of eating outside home, education, type of house and living location inside the city, seem to be the most important factors that determine the amount of food wasted in the urban area of Albania.
Keywords:
amount of waste, descriptive statistics, food waste, value of waste, waste factor
[Download Full Paper] [Page 82-95]
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10) Doing Qualitative Case Study Research in Business Management
Author Details: Candauda Arachchige Saliya-Business School, Whitireia Polytechnic 455, Queens Street, Auckland, New Zealand

Abstract:
Qualitative case-study research has experienced an upsurge in business management fields of inquiry in the recent past. A methodology is selection, justification and sequential arranging of activities, procedures and tasks in a research project. Research methodology can no longer be confined to a set of universally applicable rules, conventions and traditions. A research paradigm is a set of propositions that explains how the world is perceived. There are three basic paradigms: positivist, interpretive and critical. Qualitative ‘approaches to research’, ‘strategies of inquiry’ and ‘varieties of methodologies’ classified into five ‘types’ or ‘traditions’ namely; biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and case study.
The major criticism made of qualitative methods is that they are impressionistic and non-verifiable, post-positivists who reject this charge claiming that qualitative data is auditable and therefore dependable. The less structured qualitative methodologies reject many of the positivists’ constructions over what constitutes rigour, favouring instead the flexibility, creativity and otherwise inaccessible insights afforded by alternative routes of inquiry that embrace storytelling, recollection, and dialogue.
Case study research is not really a ‘methodology’ or a method, rather an approach to research. Case studies can be ethnographic or not and some scholars identified it as a strategy of social inquiry. It is argued that, case studies are more appropriate to investigate causal relationships prevailing both in the business field as well as in wider society in general.
Keywords: Case study research, paradigm, positivism, interpretivism, critical theory, Qualitative approaches, Methodologies, Biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography.

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[Page 96-111]
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11) Bank Credit System as an Exploitation Mechanism in Aggravating Income/Wealth Inequality
Author’s Details:(1)Candauda Arachchige Saliya-Business School, Whitireia Polytechnic-455, Queens Street, Auckland, New Zealand (2) Keith Hooper-Professor of Financial Accounting-Unitec, Auckland, New Zealand.

Abstract:
A recent Oxfam International Report (2017) revealed that world inequality is greater than was feared and that 62 people own as much as half the people on the planet.   This case-study research paper offers an account of Sri Lankan credit culture where: a) powerful credit decision-makers justify their irrational credit decisions by masquerading as patriots or as socially responsible businesspeople; and, b) an influential credit applicant was successful in obtaining credit while an ordinary credit applicant was treated differently. These observations bolster the Marxian claim that credit systems work as an exploitation mechanism towards concentration of wealth and enhance the social powerbases of the rich. This paper argues that: a) credit decisions support and enhance the economic power of influential individuals and that such economic power supplements their social power – this, in turn, reinforces the propensity to make preferential credit decisions towards influential credit applicants, thereby making them even richer and more powerful; b) ordinary credit applicants are discriminated against by strict application of credit evaluation rules; c) therefore, the credit mechanism and a strengthening socio-economic powerbase of a capitalist class are two co-integrated, mutually reinforcing functions which, by an intensifying exploitation mechanism, aggravates inequity in society.
Keywords:
Alienation, Bank lending, Capital accumulation, Case study research, Credit decisions, Discrimination, Exploitation, Income/ Wealth inequality, Marxism; Sri Lanka.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 112-126]
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Creative Commons LicenseOnline Publications by Dr. T.S Maria is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.Based on a work at http://www.casestudiesjournal.com.