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Volume 5, Issue 7

01-Aug-16

Open Access Journal

Volume 5, Issue 7

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Gastronomic Tourism as a Destination Attraction in Kazakhstan.
Author Details: Almaz Sandybayyev – Faculty of B.A. University of Mediterranean Karpasia – North Cyprus

Abstract:
The article highlights the key aspects of gastronomic tourism as a modern touristic destination in Kazakhstan. The purpose of this article is to find out the basic concepts of gastronomic tourism as a tremendously growing opportunity for the development of regions in Kazakhstan and their active participation in the formation of an innovative tourist attraction. The theoretical differentiation of gastronomic tourists based on travel purposes has been implemented. The segmentation of this type of tourism is also considered in terms of the relationship to food concept as the main travel motivator for a particular destination. An attempt to consider gastronomic tourism as a perspective view of the development of Kazakhstan regions has been made. The findings may have important implications on culinary tourism strategy for the future development and implementation in the region.
Keywords: gastronomic tourism, culinary tourism, gastronomic tourist, tourism
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-07]

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2) A stakeholder approach to sporting events: A case study of Spokane Hoopfest.
Author Details: Geumchan Hwang – University of Minnesota

Abstract:
Spokane Hoopfest is the largest outdoor 3-on-3 street basketball tournament held on the final weekend of June in downtown Spokane, Washington annually. As the largest outdoor basketball event in the world, more than 1,000,000 visitors come to the Spokane area to enjoy the event annually and about 27,000 players on 7,000 teams coming from 42 states participate in the basketball event (Spokane Hoopfest Association, 2016). The Hoopfest event has given $46 million of economic benefit to the Spokane area annually. Even though the Hoopfest event has increased profit since 1990s, Spokane Hoopfest Association (SHA) has faced issues regarding the event operation. This case study was analyzed based on 1) Stakeholder theory that concerns how the environment of people affects organizations and/or how those people are affected by the organizations’ actions and 2) SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis to diagnose problems that SHA faces and to suggest recommendations for SHA.
Keywords: Spokane, hoopfest, stakeholder, sporting event, visitor satisfaction
[Download Full Paper] [Page 08-13]

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3) Functıonal Health Patterns Model –A Case Study.
Author Details: Turkan Karaca-Adıyaman University School of Nursing

Abstract:
Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns is a method develops By Marjorie Gordon in 1987 proposed functional health patterns as a guide for establishing a comprehensive nursing data base. By using these categories it’s possible to create a systematic and standardized approach to data collection, and enable the nurse to determine the following aspects of health and human function: Health Perception Health Management Pattern, Nutritional Metabolic Pattern, Elimination Pattern, Activity Exercise Pattern, Sleep Rest Pattern, Cognitive-Perceptual Pattern, Self-Perception-Self-Concept Pattern, Role-Relationship Pattern, Sexuality-Reproductive, Coping-Stress Tolerance Pattern,Value-Belief Pattern.
Key Words:
Functional Health Patterns, Gordon, Nursing
[Download Full Paper] [Page 14-22]

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4Analysis of Marketing Issues of Beef in Shikarpur District.
Author’s Details: (1)Dr. Abdullah Sethar,-D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK.

Deputy Project Director, Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh (2)Dr.Muhammad Ali Bhatti – Assistant Professor-Agri:Business – IBA-Sukkur (3)Dr.Naimatuallah Leghari – Associate Professor, Department of farm Machinery – SAU-Tando jam (4)Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh – Assistant Professor-SZABAC-Dokri
Abstract:
The current research investigates the ANALYSIS OF MARKETING ISSUES OF BEEF IN SHIKARPUR DISTRICT.  Data were collected from 30 farms from Shikarpur and their vicinity.  Data were Analysis by using SPSS-21 version.  It was revealed that revealed that out of 50 farmers, 33 percent were literate and 67 percent were illiterate. The producer earned the net margin of Rs.3000 for each buffalo and Rs.3400 for each cattle after incurring the total expenditure of Rs.2300 for buffalo and Rs.2500 for cattle. The marketing agencies involved in the trade were identified as trader, middleman and final seller. While the middleman incurred Rs.116.40 for buffalo and Rs.100.70 for cattle, final seller incurred Rs.129.25 for buffalo and Rs.97.50 on cattle. The price spread between producer and trader, trader and middleman, middleman and final seller was Rs.372.93, Rs.937.80 and Rs.1150.00 for buffalo and Rs.711.03, Rs.901.40 and Rs.925.00 for cattle respectively. Marketing margin for trader, middleman and final seller was 1.96, 4.72 and 4.10 percent for buffalo and 4.62, 4.95 and 4.85 percent for cattle respectively. The maximum markup was 4.95 and 5.21 percent earned by middleman for the sale of buffalo and cattle respectively, while the minimum percentage received by trader was 1.80 percent from the sale of buffalo and 4.18 from the sale of cattle.  The price paid by consumer on buffalo was shared as 89.58 percent by producer, 1.80 percent by trader, 4.52 percent by middleman, and 4.10 percent by final seller, whereas, in case of cattle it was shared as 86.27 percent (producer), 4.18 percent (trader), 4.7 percent (middleman), 4.85 percent (final seller).

Key Word: Analysis, Marketing Issues,  Beef, Shikarpur, District
[Download Full Paper] [Page 23-31]

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5) Investigation of the Relationship of the Shape and Size of Glycoprotein and It Function.
Author’s Details:(1) Dr. Abdullah Sethar, D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh (2) Dr.Naimatuallah Leghari-Associate Professor, Department of farm Machinery SAU-Tando jam (3) Dr.Muhammad Ali Bhatti-Assistant Professor-Agri:Business IBA-Sukkur

(4) Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh-Assistant Professor-SZABAC-Dokri
Abstract:
The resaerch investigates the Investigation of the relationship of the shape and size of glycoprotein and it function.  It was found from this test that fullness was not related particle size or the amount of GP but empty particles are more elliptical than normal or dense particles. So RNA or NP only explain some  of the variability in virus shape, but not the relationship between  shape and size. Since RNA and NP density does not change  during fusion activation, RNA and NP are not good explanation for the sudden change  in shape. Dense particles are round, Some empty particles are elliptical but  fullness does not change with fusion activation.  It was further revealed that The correlation coefficient for LCMV, TCRV and PICV were all below the level that would be considered statistically meaningful or should small contradictory  effects (Table 4.1) Most virions were covered with GPs but a few did not appear to have any. From this data it was concluded that GP density does not affect virus shape.
Keywords: Investigation, Relationship, shape and size of glycoprotein, function

[Download Full Paper] [Page 32-41]

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6) Assembly of Arena virus an Ultra structural Perspective.
Author’s Details: (1) Dr. Abdullah Sethar,D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK.Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh (2)Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman-School of Biological University of Reading-UK     (3)Dr.Muhammad Ali Bhatti-Assistant Professor-Agri:Business-IBA-Sukkur

Abstract:
The Arenaviredae are a family of viruses whose members are generally associated with rodent transmitted disease in humans which currently comprises 24 viral species. Arenavirus infections are relatively common in humans in some areas of the world and can cause severe illnesses including several haemorrhagic fevers. The virus particles vary in diameter from 60 to more than 300 nm. They are spherical and have a reported average diameter of 92 nanometres. All are enveloped in a lipid bilayer and have a bisegmented ambisense RNA genome, but relatively little is known about how virions are assembled and how virion structure relates to transmissibility. To investigate the role of each viral structural protein in forming and maintaining the structure of the virion, we have imaged particles of arenaviruses LCMV, PICV and TCRV, and compared their shape and structural characteristics to similar sized phospholipid vesicles. A very strong association between particle size
and shape was found for all arenavirus particles: small virions were significantly rounder than vesicles of similar size, while large particles tended to be more elliptical in appearance. The natural variation in surface glycoprotein decoration and ribonucleoprotein incorporation was then measured. From this data it was concluded that there is no strong evidence relating particles size to decoration for arenaviruses as a group, but we did detect significant correlations between internal density and virion shape. Overall, we are able to conclude that small virions are round and relatively rigid compared to vesicles of the same size, while large virions are not. By comparing relative density of the membrane- proximal region it was discovered that arenavirus shape is controlled by complexes containing GPC, Z and NP at the surface of the virion, and that an unbroken inner shell of NP is essential for maintaining a rigid spherical shape. Furthermore, it was revealed that the inner leaflet of intact arenaviruses has a lower density than the inner leaflet of vesicles consistent with the interpretation that viral proteins are displaying lipid molecules from the inner leaflet of the viral membrane.These data provide a new way of assessing the function of viral protein interactions on virion structure and may be of use in designing antiviral drugs that act at the level of virion structure.

Key words: Arena virus, Ultra structural Perspective
[Download Full Paper] [Page 42-65]

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7) A Sporadic Case of Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting As Pseudoblbar Palsy – A Case Study.
Author Details: Dr. S. Sriram, M. Pharm., Ph.D.Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, SRIPMS, Coimbatore – 641 044. 

Abstract:
Motor neuron diseases are progressive neuro-degenerative disorders of the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, that controls the voluntary movements of the muscles [1,2]. Signals are transmitted from the upper motor neurons (UMN) in the brain to the lower motor neurons (LMN) in the spinal cord and then to different muscles [2]. Motor neuron diseases can be hereditary or acquired and vary in its clinical presentation [7]. MND is quite rare with an incidence of almost 2/1,00,000 people in most parts of the world and the incidence is higher in males than the females [3,4,5]. Onset usually occurs at an age of 40 – 60 years [3].
[Download Full Paper] [Page 66-69]

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8Effect of Various Levels of Commercial Herbitol on the Feed Efficiency and Blood Composition of Broiler.
Author’s Details: (1)Shahid Iqbal –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (2)Imdad Leghari –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (3)Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (4)Azizullah Memon, Assistant Professor ,SAU-Tando jam (5).M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur

Abstract:
The experiment was conducted during 2015 to evaluate the effect of commercial Herbitol at various concentrations on feed efficiency and blood composition of broiler. A total of 200 Hubbard day old chicks were purchased from local market and brought to Poultry Experimental Station, Department of Poultry Husbandry, Faculty of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. The birds were reared for a period of 06 weeks (42 days). Treatments include
group A = control, group B = 2 ml / liter of Herbitol, group C = 4 ml / liter of Herbitol and group D = 6 ml / liter of Herbitol

Key Words: Effect, Commercial, Herbitol, Efficiency.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 70-75]

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9) Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) Cholesterol of Count of Broilers.
Author’s Details: (1)Shahid Iqbal –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (2)Imdad Leghari –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (3)Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (4)Azizullah Memon, Assistant Professor ,SAU-Tando jam (5).M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur

Abstract:
This research investigates that Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Cholesterol ofcount of broilers.  It was revealed that reported significant (P>0.05) difference in cholesterol count of broilers among the groups. All-pair-wise (LSD) test indicated that there was significant variation in total protein count between treatment groups B, C, D with control group-A, respectively. The result (Figure-14) indicated that average cholesterol count in groups A, B, C and D was 117.67, 121.67, 118.33 and 124 g/dl, respectively. Maximum cholesterol count of 124 g/dl were noted in group D where the bird fed on Herbitol level of 6 ml / liter of water as compared to group B (121.67  g/dl) where the birds fed on Herbitol level of 2 ml / liter of water. The average cholesterol count further decreased to 118.33 g/dl in group C where the bird fed on Herbitol level of 4 ml / liter of water. Minimum cholesterol count (117.67 g/dl) was recorded for group A (control) where the birds do not fed on Herbitol compound.
Key Words:
Analysis, Variance, Cholesterol
[Download Full Paper] [Page 76-79]

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10) Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) In Total Protein Count of Broiler.
Author’s Details: (1)Shahid Iqbal –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (2)Imdad Leghari –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (3)Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (4)Azizullah Memon, Assistant Professor ,SAU-Tando jam (5).M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur

Abstract:
This research investigates that Analysis of variance (ANOVA)  in total protein count of broiler.  Analysis of variance (ANOVA) reported significant (P>0.05) difference in total protein count of broilers among the groups. All-pair-wise (LSD) test indicated that there was significant variation in total protein count between treatment groups B, C, D with control group-A, respectively.  The result (Figure-13) indicated that average total protein count in groups A, B, C and D was 3.33, 3.46, 3.53 and 4.03 g/dl, respectively. Maximum total protein count of 4.03 g/dl were noted in group D where the bird fed on Herbitol level of 6 ml / liter of water as compared to group C (3.53  g/dl) where the birds fed on Herbitol level of 4 ml / liter of water. The average total protein count further decreased to 3.46 g/dl in group B where the bird fed on Herbitol level of 2 ml / liter of water. Minimum total protein count (3.33 g/dl) was recorded for group A (control) where the birds do not fed on Herbitol compound. The results reveal that broilers in group D received highest total protein  count as compared to broiler in group C, B and A, respectively.
Key Words:
Analysis, variance, (ANOVA), total protein.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 80-83]

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11) Commercial Herbitol on the Feed Efficiency and Blood Composition of Broiler an Analytical View.
Author’s Details: (1) Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh,(2)M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sulkkur (3)Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar-Consultant PhysicianAl- Amiri Hospital Kuwait city, Kuwait (4)Dr. Nargis Khan-Senior Registrar Medicine Department  Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi

Abstract:
The current research investigates Commercial Herbitol on the Feed Efficiency and Blood Composition of Broiler an analytical view. It was revealed that Average feed intake in groups A, B, C and D was 4050, 4044, 4077 and 4130 g/bird; water intake was 7936.5, 8189.8, 8196.7 and 8264.9 ml/bird; live body weight was 1916.7, 1960, 2070 and 2200.7 g/bird; FCR was 2.11, 2.06, 1.97 and 1.88; carcass weight was 1277.3, 1303.3, 1310 and 1393.3 g/bird; dressing percentage was 0.58, 0.58, 0.60 and 0.62%, respectively. Weight of liver in group A, B, C and D was 2.45, 2.59, 2.45 and 2.34 g/bird; weight of heart was 0.61, 0.61, 0.61 and 0.62%, weight of spleen was 0.08, 0.07, 0.07 and 0.07%; weight of gizzard was 1.21, 1.22, 1.12 and 1.42%, respectively. Average hemoglobin count in groups A, B, C and D was 9.2, 10.7, 10.73 and 10.9 g/dl; packed cell volume was 22.23, 24.50, 23.33 and 24.73 g/dl; red blood cell count was 3.6, 3.86, 4.1 and 4.11 g/dl; white blood cell was 9747, 10233, 10200 and 10370 g/dl; glucose was 191.33, 192, 198.33 and 206 g/dl; total protein was 3.33, 3.46, 3.53 and 4.03 g/dl; cholesterol was 117.67, 121.67, 118.33 and 124 g/dl; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase was 244.67, 250, 253.33 and 260 g/dl, respectively. Hence, from group A, B, C and D, the net profit remained Rs. 8.4, 6.2, 15 and 25.8/bird, respectively. It was concluded that economically the broiler managed in group D (Herbitol @6ml/litre water) proved to be more profitable as compared to rest of the treatment groups and control group.
Key Words:
Commercial, Herbitol, Feed Efficiency, Blood Composition, Broiler.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 84-91]

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12) Effect of Herbitol at Different Concentrations (Ml/Litre Water) On the Economic Parameters of Broiler.
Author’s Details: (1)Shahid Iqbal –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (2)Imdad Leghari –Department of Poultry Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam, (3)Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (4)Azizullah Memon, Assistant Professor ,SAU-Tando jam (5).M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur

Abstract:
The current research investigates Effect of herbitol at different concentrations (ml/litre water) on the economic parameters of broiler. Data were collected from  of 200 Hubbard day old chicks were purchased from local market.The birds were reared for a period of 06 weeks (42 days). The chicks were initially weighed and randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D with equal number of chicks .Group A was kept as control, whereas group B, C and D was supplemented Herbitol @ 2ml/L,4ml/L,and 6ml/L respectively. The economic parameters of broiler flock given Herbitol and allocated groups A (Control), B (Herbitol @2ml/litre water), C (Herbitol @4ml/litre water) and D (Herbitol @6ml/litre water) was taken into account on the basis of total feed cost, total live body weight, market sale price of chicken and subsequent impact on the net profit was worked out (Table 1).  The average feed cost on broilers in group A, B, C and D was Rs. 162, 161.4, 162.8 and 165.2/bird; while the total costs including the costs on feed, herbitol,  other medication, litter, limestone, labour and other miscellaneous expenditures in groups A, B, C and D were Rs. 259, 258.6, 259.8 and 262.2/bird, respectively.  On average the birds generating total income of Rs. 267.4, 274.6, 289.8 and 308/bird, respectively when marketed at the rate of Rs. 140/kg live body weight.  Hence, from group A, B, C and D, the net profit remained Rs. 8.4, 16, 30 and 45.6/bird, respectively. It was concluded that economically the broiler managed in group D (Herbitol @6ml/litre water) proved to be more profitable as compared to rest of the treatment groups and control group.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 92-96]

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13) Correlation Coefficients Describing the Relationship between Shape and Size for 2710 Particles LCMV, Grouped By Size Range of Arena Virus.
Author’s Details: (1) Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director, Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (2) Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK. (3)Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar– Consultant PhysicianAl- Amiri Hospital Kuwait city, Kuwait (4)Dr. Nargis Khan – Senior Registrar Medicine Department  Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi (5)M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur

Abstract:
LCMV is best treated as two population one is small viruses that are unnaturally round and large viruses that are the same as vesicles. We also found that shape of small arenavirus particles is significantly rounder than shape of vesicles. Therefore:  Protein interactions of Arenaviruses make small particles round. Large particles are elliptical due to insufficient interaction of protein. Future work now focuses on variation in the GP, NP, and Z that correlates with changes in size and shape.
Key Words: Correlation coefficients, LCMV
[Download Full Paper] [Page 97-102]

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14) Role of Epidemiology of Arena Viruses.
Author’s Details: (1) Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director, Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (2) Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK. (3)Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar– Consultant PhysicianAl- Amiri Hospital Kuwait city, Kuwait (4)Dr. Nargis Khan – Senior Registrar Medicine Department  Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi (5)M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur
Abstract:

The current research investigates the Epidemiology of Arenavirus .The results shows that infections follow a typical epidemic curve with a 1-2 week latent period, as shown for the case of Lujo virus which was identified in South Africa, September – October 2008 (see Fig 12). Source: Special Pathogens Unit and Epidemiology Division, NICD; Gauteng Provincial Outbreak Response Team and partners; SA-FELTP residents; Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand and the National Health Laboratory Service.
Key Words:
Role,Epidemiology , Arenaviruses
[Download Full Paper] [Page 103-113]

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15) The Role of Arena Virus Protein and Their Molar Ratio.
Author’s Details: (1) Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director, Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (2) Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK. (3)Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar– Consultant PhysicianAl- Amiri Hospital Kuwait city, Kuwait (4)Dr. Nargis Khan – Senior Registrar Medicine Department  Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi (5)M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sukkur
Abstract:
The current investigates the role of Arenavirus protein and their molar ratio. The arenavirus L protein has the characteristic sequence motifs conserved among the RdRp (L proteins) of NS RNA virus.  The proposed polymerase module of L is located within domain 3 which contains highly conserved amino acids within motifs designated A and C. The L RNA segment encodes a high-molecular-mass protein (L; ca. 200 kDa) which has the characteristic motifs conserved in all the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerases and a small polypeptide Z (ca.11 kDa) which contains a RING finger motif and whose function is unknown
(1, 19, 33) . The L RNA segment codes for the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L, ca 200 kDa) (19) and a small (11-kDa) RING finger protein (Z) (17).
Key Words:
Role, Arenavirus, protein, molar ratio
[Download Full Paper] [Page 114-118]

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16) Role of Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Arena Virus.
Author’s Details: (1) Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (2) Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK. (3) M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sulkkur  (4) Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar-Consultant PhysicianAl- Amiri Hospital Kuwait city, Kuwait (5) Dr. Nargis Khan– Senior Registrar Medicine Department  Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi
Abstract:
The current research Role of Cryo-Electron Microscopy of  arena virus It was revealed that
The natural hosts of Junin virus are rodents, particularly Mus musculus, Calomys spp and Akodon azarae (Vesper Mouse). Direct rodent to human transmission only transpires when contact is made with excrement of an infected rodent. Hazardous group is 4. This commonly occurs via ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of particles within urine or via direct contact of broken skin with rodent excrement. As described in material method about CTFit an image generated after Contrast transfer function is given in fig 9 showing clear difference of image before and after CTFit.
Key words:
Role, Cryo-Electron, Microscopy. Arena virus
[Download Full Paper] [Page 119-124]

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17) Comparative Analysis of Production efficiencies of Palm oil Production of Coastal belt of Sindh, Pakistan compare with Malaysia and Thailand.
Author’s Details: (1)Dr.Faiz.Muhammad Shaikh, (2)Dr.Abbdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and  Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (3) M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sulkkur  (4) Zamir Hussain UjjanDeputy director Coastal Development Authority (5) Dr.Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar, Assistant Professor Department of Education extension, Sindh Agriculture University Tando jam.

Abstract:
This research investigates the Comparative Analysis of Production efficiencies of Palm oil Production of Coastal belt of Sindh, Pakistan compare with Malaysia and Thailand.  Data were collected from primary as well as secondary sources.  A structural questionnaire were developed for the reliability and validity of data. It was revealed that According to results in Malaysia  is the leading in terms of production efficiencies 16-18 bunches of the one plant and in Thailand 10-15-bunches per plant and total production from one plant 80-90  Kg per plant in Malaysia and 50-60 kg in Thailand. In kathore Farm Thatha Sindh Pakistan production per plant from 55-60kg and in some some plants 14-16 bunches.  It was revealed that in short span of time Coastal belt of Thatha is improving plam oil production. Government has to install oil extract mills in coastal belts of Thatha and Badin.
Key Words:
Palm Oil, Production Efficiency, Coastal, Sindh, Malaysia, Thailand.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 125-128]

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18) Role Of Rodents Carries Diseases On UK Farms.
Author’s Details: (1)Abdullah Sethar D.V.M., M. Sc (Honors) from Pakistan and Ph.D from England, UK. Deputy Project Director,Sindh Agricultural Growth Project ( Livestock Component) World Bank Assisted, Government of Sindh, Hyderabad-Sindh, (2) Dr. Benjamin W. Neuman, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK. (3)Dr. Gul Hassan Sethar-Consultant PhysicianAl- Amiri Hospital Kuwait city, Kuwait (4)Dr. Nargis Khan -Senior Registrar Medicine Department  Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi (5)M.Ali Bhatti, Assistant Professor IBA-Sulkkur

Abstract:
The current research investigates the Role of rodents carries diseases on UK farms. In  the  UK,  Campylobacter   spp.  and  Lymphocytic  Choriomeningitis   Virus  (LCMV),  an  Old  World arenavirus,  cause  two  zoonoses  of  concern  that  may  be  transmissible  from  rodents  to  humans  and livestock. The aims of this preliminary  investigation  were to examine the occurrence  of Campylobacter spp. and LCMV  in Norway  rats Rattus  norvegicus  on UK farms  and to identify  and characterise  the Sequence Types of the Campylobacter  isolates. Samples were collected from wild Norway rats and fresh Norway  rat  faeces.  Multi  Locus  Sequence  Typing  (MLST)  was  performed  on  C.  spp.  isolates  and samples  were tested for arenavirus  RNA by RT-PCR.  Six C. spp. isolates were identified.  One isolate was C. lari and five isolates were C. jejuni. Following MSLT profiling, three unique C. jejuni sequence types were identified.  Two of which are novel and the third is typically  associated  with livestock  and human  infection.  Nine positive  results  for LCMV  were obtained  giving an overall  prevalence  of 25% across four sites. This is higher than previously reported for this species.
Keywords:  Arenavirus,Campylobacter,disease,Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis,rodents

[Download Full Paper] [Page 129-130]

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