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Volume 3, Issue 11

Open Access Journal

Volume 3, Issue 11

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Stock Splits and Stock Dividends: Implications for Bid Ask Spread Components.
Author Detail: Dr Wissem daadaa-University of Carthage; FSEG Nabeul- Tunisia

Abstract:
Recent theoretical researches in equity market consider that the enhanced liquidity is the principal motivation for stock splits and stock dividends, however, empirical studies find different results and even a decline in liquidity after the announcements or the effectives dates (ex dates) of theses events. In this paper, we analyze the stock splits and stock dividends effects on liquidity using bid ask spread measures.  The sample is composed of all the stock splits and stock dividends announcements on Tunisia Stock Exchange (TSE), between 1990 and 2010.  We test the change of the various indicators liquidity before the announcement period, between the announcement and the ex date, and after the ex date. The results show an increase in the absolute and relative spread after the ex date of stock splits.  This increase in the spread involves an increase in the investor transaction cost, a degradation of the short-term liquidity and the fall of the market quality.  This increase is explained by order processing costs and inventory holding costs.
Key words: bid ask spread,
order processing costs, inventory holding costs, and adverse selection costs.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-08]

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2) The Role of Planning Resources in Firm performance: An Empirical Investigation.
Author’s detail: (1)Juliana Mulaa Namada  (2) Evans Aosa (3) Zachary Awino (4) Gituro Wainaina
1School of Business, United States International University, 2School of Business, Department of Business Administration, University of Nairobi; 3School of Business University of Nairobi, Department of Business Administration; 4School of Business, Department of Management Science University of Nairobi.

Abstract:
This study sought to establish the relationship between planning resources and firm performance. The study premised on the resource based perspective which presupposes that resources are valuable bundles which when utilized well lead to the growth of the firm both internally and externally. However, there is inadequate empirical support to this view specifically from the developing economies. Data for this study was obtained from firms operating in Export Processing Zones (EPZ) in Kenya. The study established a positive and significant relationship between planning resources and both financial and none financial performance measures. Managerial implication of the study pointed to the need for managers to refocus on appropriate configuration of planning resources to achieve better performance.
Key words
: Firm, Planning Resources, Performance, Export Processing Zones
[Download Full Paper] [Page 09-20]

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3) Out of the Shadows: Redeeming the Contributions of Evelyn Dewey to Education and Social Justice (1909-1919).
Author’s detail: (1) Jeroen Staring and (2)Jerry Aldridge
(1)Dr Jeroen Staring teaches mathematics at secondary schools in The Netherlands. His 2005 Medical Sciences dissertation describes the life, work and technique of F. Matthias Alexander. In 2013 he successfully defended a second dissertation, on the early history of the NYC Bureau of Educational Experiments

(2)Dr Jerry Aldridge is professor emeritus at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and a representative to the United Nations for the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP). He has published extensively on progressive education and women’s issues. Before returning to Birmingham, Alabama recently, he lived in Jakarta, Indonesia and New York City.
Abstract:
Evelyn Dewey (1889-1965) is known as the daughter of John Dewey (1859-1952) while little has been written about her contributions as an educator and social activist in her own right. The purpose of this article is to highlight the life and works of Evelyn Dewey from 1909-1919 and beyond. As a political and social activist, Evelyn Dewey supported the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) and the strike known as the Waistmakers’ Revolt before she began her extensive research for the book, Schools of To-Morrow (Dewey & Dewey, 1915). She also worked for the Public Education Association and the Bureau of Educational Experiments, as well as Columbia University. Her work for the Bureau resulted in two books, New Schools for Old (Dewey, 1919), and Methods and Results of Testing School Children (Dewey, Child, & Ruml, 1920). After 1919, Evelyn Dewey was involved in speaking engagements concerning experimental schools and extensive writing that resulted in three books, The Dalton Laboratory Plan (Dewey, 1922), Children of the New Day (Glover & Dewey, 1934) and Behavior Development in Infants (Dewey, 1935).
Key Words: Evelyn Riggs Dewey / Evelyn Riggs (née Dewey) Granville Smith Jr. (1889-1965), John Dewey (1859-1952), Marie Turner Harvey (1866-1952), Elisabeth Antoinette Irwin (1880-1942), Harriet Merrill Johnson (1867-1934), Marietta Johnson (1864-1938), Lucy Sprague Mitchell (1878-1967), Dorothy Payne Whitney Willard Straight (1887-1965), Bureau of Educational Experiments, Gary School League, National Social Unit Organization.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 21-33]

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4) The Kinesiology Comparison of Cross Country Skiing – Classical Technique and Pedalling.
Author’s detail:(1) Martina ChrastkovaRadka (2)Bacakova, (3)Daniel Spulak(4) Roman Cmejla, Bronislav Kracmar(5)1Charles University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Jose Martiho 31, 162 52, Prague 6 – Veleslavin2Charles University Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Jose Martiho 31, 162 52, Prague 6 – Veleslavin3Czech Technica  University, faculty of Electricalengineering Technicka 6, 166 27, Prague 64Czech Technical University, faculty of Electrical engineering Technicka 6, 166 27, Prague65Charles University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Jose Martiho 31, 162 52, Prague 6 – Veleslavin

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to observe, analyze and compare electromyographic (EMG) signal of the  leg muscles during the cross country (XC) classic ski technique skiing by classical technique (represented by diagonal stride) and pedalling on stationary bike.The data were collected by surface electromyography method (SEMG), and by synchronized video recording. Acquired data were processed by software MatLab and MegaWin, the video recording was processed with Dartfish SW.Established values of correlation and covariance show higher level of exactingness for holding of dynamic balance during cross country skiing in comparison with cycling on the stationary bike. We found high levels of co-contraction of all analyzed muscles during the cross country skiing. During Pedalling were the muscles activated and deactivated continually.This study confirmed high level of demands for m. tibialis anterior by in cross country skiing. It is necessary as for the ending of kick as for stabilization knee join and all leg and so all body during glide phase.
Keywords:Cross country skiing training, classic technique, cycling, Pedalling, electromyography, muscles activation
.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 34-42]

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5) Analogous Aspacts between Combinatorial Optimization and Optimization Techniques: A Review.
Author’s detail:(1)Pravendra Tyagi (Correponding author) Ph.D. Research scholar, MNIT Jaipur302020Rajasthan, India (2)Prof G.Agarwal Professor, MNIT Jaipur-302020Rajasthan, India

Abstract:Paper contributes towards the clear visibility among combinatorial optimization and optimization techniques by exploring the detailed concept of analogous term according to suitability of optimal methods to concerned problem to be assigned as the objective of the case study. Myriads efforts have been made to focus the various methodologies useful in CO problems but do not give transparent outlook in the area of computer and operation research, but this paper makes reader comfortable to relate the method to the defined problem.
Keywords: Combination optimization, techniques, analogous, optimal
[Download Full Paper] [Page 43-45]

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6) Democracy Towards Good Governance: Study of critical factors distressing the Democracy in Pakistan.
Author’s detail: Dr. Sirajul Haque
Abstract:Since inception of Pakistan in 1947, the country has gone through autocratic systems and fragile democratic systems. During 65 years history of Pakistan, 40 years has been ruled by non-democratic rulers and 25 years have been ruled by fragile democratic people. It has been 40 years since the introduction of parliamentary form of democratic system but it has brought no improvement in nourishing the democratic values overall. It is undeniable fact that real representatives in democracy can move forward the democratic values
Geographically, the population of the country is living in urban areas and rural areas. According the Government statistics, 60% population is living in rural areas and 40% is living in the urban areas. The country is treading towards prosperity and development of the nation, no matter how far it may be slow taking process. The democratic system controlled by few privileged class of people does not truly representing the aspiration of the masses and consequently it does left good omen for the future of the nation.
This research study is focused on the analyzing that how far our prevailing democratic system fall under the essence of democratic system  and what are the critical factors affecting the essence of democracy in the country. Abraham Lincoln in his speech on November, 19, 1963 has described democracy in the following words; Government of the people, for the people and by the people” .The research study will be taken on the basis of above  three mentioned hypotheses of democracy essence i.e Government by the People, Government for the People and Government of the People.
This research study has targeted the common voters in the various districts of Pakistan and conducted survey from the targeted population in rural and urban areas for the purpose of collecting information.
Keywords: Democracy, Good Governance, Rural Population, Urban population, Political parties.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 46-51]

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7) The Contribution Of Non-Town Planning Legislations/Policies To The Development And Practise Of Town Planning In Nigeria.
Author’s detail: *Vivan Ezra Lekwot¹, Charles Kyom Bijimi², Michael Kingsley Balasom³ And Okafor Christian I4.-¹ Department Of Geography And Planning, University Of Jos, Nigeria.² Department Of Urban And Regional Planning, University Of Jos, Nigeria.³Department Of Urban And Regional Planning Modibbo Adama University Of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.4un Habitat, Juba, South Sudan.*Corresponding Author Email Address: ezravivan@yahoo.com, ezrav540@gmail.com
Abstract:
Town planning is a dynamic profession that works to improve the welfare of people and their communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient and attractive places for present and future generations. It is therefore necessary for planning to be in control and take charge of the responsibilities of the emerging challenges as such, this paper examines the contribution of non-town planning legislation/policies in the development and practice of town planning in Nigeria. There are various legislations and policies formulated for the country that are both planning and non-planning in nature, but all these legislations and policies may not likely work if they are not interwoven or making any significant contributing to town planning practice in Nigeria. Among the notable ones are, the National Information Technology Policy, the nation’s policy on the Millennium Development Goals and The National Strategic Health Development Plan Framework, all of which have contributed in no small measure to the development and practice of town planning in Nigeria. There are other policies that can still contribute to the development and practice of town planning in Nigeria, but the problems are in the implementation and the superior claim of other professional to the town planning profession coupled the problem of relevant agencies being led by non planners rather than professional planners.
Key words: Town planning, Legislation, Policies, Geographic Information System, Nigerian Information Technology Policy, Millennium Development Goals, National Strategic Health Development Plan Framework.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 52-58]

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