News Board: (1) Volume 6 Issue 11 Out now (2) Calls For Papers Volume 6 Issue 12 (25-Dec-2017) (5) Hard Copy Also available on Demand
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Volume 6, Issue 11

Open Access Journal

Volume 6, Issue 11

Impact Factor 4.428

1) Analysis of the Contribution of African Firms to the World Total Manufacturing
Author’s Details: (1)Agu, Osmond Chigozie-(1)Lecturer, Department of Economics-Federal University, Oye-Ekiti,Nigeria (2)Mbah, Stella Ada-(3)Okoli, Timothy Tochukwu(2)(3)Lecturer, Department of Economics-Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria

Abstract:
This paper examines the status of industrial development in Africa with a focus on the identification of stylized facts associated with African manufacturing. It x-rays the contributions of African firms to the world’s total manufacturing. It also provides an analysis of past attempts at promoting industrial development in the region and the lessons learned from these experiences. Panel data (combination of Cross sectional and Time series analysis) is applied on the data obtained by UNIDO from developing countries spanning from 1980-2010. After gaining political independence, which occurred mainly in the 1960s, most African countries started to promote industrialization. The emphasis on industrialization was based on the political conviction by African leaders that it was necessary to ensure self-reliance and reduce dependence on advanced countries. Furthermore, there was the expectation that industrialization would hasten the transformation of African countries from agricultural to modern economies, create employment opportunities, raise incomes as well as living standards, and reduce vulnerability to terms of trade shocks resulting from dependence on primary commodity exports. But during the 1970s, with successive oil shocks and an emerging debt problem, it started to become clear that import substitution industrialization was not sustainable. With the introduction of structural adjustment programmes in the 1980s, African countries curtailed specific policy efforts to promote industrialization and focused on removing anti-export biases and furthering specialization according to comparative advantage. It was expected that competitive pressures would revitalize economic activity by leading to the survival of the fittest. But whilst these policies were certainly intended to have structural effects, the conventional view is that they did not boost industrialization in the region. Efforts to promote industrial development in Africa should be centered on (a) promoting scientific and technological innovation, (b) creating linkages in the domestic economy, (c) fostering entrepreneurship, (d) improving government capabilities, (e)adopting appropriate monetary and fiscal policies.
Keywords: Industrialization, Self-reliance, oil shocks, Employment generation, Primary commodity.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-13]
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2) Analysis of the Expenditure on Democracy and Governance in Nigeria
Author’s Details:(1)Agu, Osmond Chigozie-Lecturer, Department of Economics, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti,Nigeria (2)Okoli, Basil Chuka-Lecturer, Department Of Political Science, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti (3)Mbah, Stella Ada-Lecturer, Department of Economics-Federal University, Oye-Ekiti,Nigeria

Abstract:
The paper aims at assessing the cost of governance in Nigeria.  The methodology adopted by the paper involves the use of quantitative data for 9 years, from 2002 to 2010, which was generated from the annual reports and accounts of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The data generated for the study was analyzed using graphs and simple percentage analysis.  The finding of the paper shows that Cost of governance in Nigeria  has greatly increased due to unnecessary increase in the number of government agencies, high number of Commissioners, Special Advisers, Special Assistants and Personal Assistants, jumbo pay of political office holders, payroll fraud as a result of ghost workers, high number of official vehicles irrespective of the monetization policy of the government, incessant foreign trips, existence of security vote and extra-budgetary expenditure. It was identified that only 7.5% of the sum was put to poverty alleviation (Social protection). Thus, questioning the cost minimization strategies and revenue assurance mechanisms in the States.  Similarly, the trend of Extra-Budgetary Expenditure put to question the implementation of budgets at the States. The paper concludes that the task of reducing cost of governance does not rest on the executive, legislature and judiciary alone. It is a task demanding the collective effort of all stakeholders. Finally, the paper recommends that there is the need to reduce recurrent expenditure to sustainable level through reducing waste, inefficiency, corruption and duplication in government, as well as, make capital spending more effective and ensure even redistribution of wealth.
Key words:
Budgetary Expenditure, Social Protection, Capital Expenditure, Recurrent Expenditure. 

[Download Full Paper] [Page 14-26]
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3) Climate Change: on Nature’s and Social System’s Determinism
Author’s Details:(1)Jan-Erik Lane (2)Florent Dieterlen-(1)Jan-Erik Lane, Fellow with Public Policy Institute, BELGRADE; Address: 10 Charles Humbert, 1205 Geneva; 559 A, 3rd Floor, Thuya Street, 9th Quarter, Yangon. Myanmar.(2)Florent Dieterlen is independent scholar, Geneva.
Abstract:
The great fear for the future is that the global warming process already started starts displaying signs of irreversibility – determinism. One can distinguish between two kinds of deterministic processes, that of Nature and socio-economic determinism. If GHGs or CO2s are allowed to increase so much that temperature rises 5 degrees Celsius or more, then we have nature’s determinism, probably eliminating the conditions for advanced life. Socio-economic determinism models how human activity or social systems are driven by unstoppable forces like individual needs and power or the trend of capitalistic economy. Perhaps the COP23 fails to start the implementation of COP21 Treaty due to the enormous demand for cheap energy in the global economy and national societies?
Keywords:
Global warming as irreversible process, natural determinism against socio-economic determinism, degrees of freedom in global coordination against climate change.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 27-36]
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4) Destination Development through Sustainable Tourism Management (Tanguar Haor as a Case Study)
Author’s Details: Abdullah Al Muneem 1, Md. Ashikur Rahman Avi 1 Lecturer, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Dhaka 2 Lecturer, Department of International Tourism and Hospitality Management, Primeasia University
Abstract:
This research paper seeks to study the present status of tourism in Tanguar Haor, with a future plan to develop this Wetland destination in a Sustainable Management approach based on the needs of the local community. The aim of this paper is to draw conclusions that help to develop a Sustainable management and destination development plan for Tanguar Haor, which will ensure- long term economic viability to the Local Communities, Conservation and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources of Tanguar Haor while enhancing tourists/visitors experience as well as community well-being. This paper consists of three basic parts. Current tourism attractions, facilities, accessibility, economic contributions of Tanguar Haor are described in the first part. The second and third part respectively contains several key issues which need to be addressed for sustainable tourism development, as well as their prioritization matrix along with objectives and appropriate action plan.
The research paper endorsed continuous measurement and monitoring of output so that evaluation can be done with the success criteria of destination management action plan, to ensure sustainable development of Tourism, Tanguar Haor resources, and Community.
Key Words:
Destination development, Sustainable Tourism Management, Tanguar Haor.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 37-49]
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5) Social media usage and impact: a study on Bangladesh Tourism Industry
Author Details:(1)Shahnawaz Kamal-Lecturer-Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management World University of Bangladesh

Abstract:
In the world of internet, social media becomes a common platform for people where they can be easily connected to the world and influence others by their activities. The purpose of the study was to investigate which social media is used mostly and to what extent it is influencing Bangladesh tourism industry. People of different age groups and gender give their response through a questionnaire and put into SPSS to find out frequency distribution for better interpretation and understanding. The output was tremendous as it shows that Bangladeshi people use Facebook mostly. Hotels, restaurants and destinations gets higher attention. In terms of destination branding each person who interacts in social media can be a brand ambassador of this country. Further investigation is needed to determine how accommodation, transportation, attractions and activities can use social media, as well as to understand tourists’ perception over a destination to develop Bangladesh tourism industry.
Key Words: 
Tourism, Social Media, Hotel, Restaurants, Destination, tourism consumer
[Download Full Paper] [Page 50-60]
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6) Subject Matter and Method: What a Pedagogic Dialectic in Dewey’s Democracy and Education?Author Details: Valentine BANFEGHA NGALIM (PhD), Department of Philosophy, Higher Teacher Training College, Bambili, University of Bamenda, Cameroon
Abstract:
The dialectic between the subject matter and method is prominent in Dewey’s educational thought. Dewey defines subject matter as the facts and materials observed, recalled, read, and talked about in the curriculum. He refers to method as the techniques, strategies and logical processes and procedures put in place to facilitate learning. This paper discusses two important aspects; Firstly, mastery of the subject matter is necessary for good teaching and secondly, the dialectic between subject matter and method. From the Aristotelian theory of hylemorphism, the subject matter is perceived as matter and method is form. With the argument that matter cannot be conceived without form, this article argues that mastery of the subject matter and methodology of teaching are inseparable values in any pedagogic process. On the basis of the subject matter, the argument goes that “you cannot give what you do not have” (Nemo dat quod non habet). However, every subject matter requires a “modus operandi”, which refers to the techniques of teaching and the skills of facilitating learning. Consequently, mastery of the subject matter is not sufficient for good teaching. Every teacher requires skills and techniques of teaching and these values have implications in the training and recruitment of teachers.
Keywords:
  Dialectic; Subject matter; Method; Teaching, Pedagogy and John Dewey.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 61-70]
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7) Comparison of Selection Method of a Membership Function for Fuzzy Neural Networks
Author Details: Md. Musa Khan-PhD Fellow, Anadolu University, Faculty of Science Department of Statistics, Eskisehir, Turkey

Abstract:
Fuzzy neural networks are learning machine that realize the parameters of a fuzzy system (i.e., fuzzy sets, fuzzy rules) by exploiting approximation techniques from neural networks. In this paper, we tend to illustrate a general methodology, based on statistical analysis of the training data, for the choice of fuzzy membership functions to be utilized in reference to fuzzy neural networks. Fuzzy neural networks give for the extraction of fuzzy rules for from artificial neural network architectures. First, the technique is represented and so illustrated utilizing two experimental examinations for determining the alternate approach of the fuzzy neural network.
Keywords:  Fuzzy, Neural networks, Membership function, Training data.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 71-77]
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