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Volume 4 , Issue 11

Open Access Journal

Volume 4, Issue 11

Impact Factor 3.582

1) The Effects of Closure of Refugee Camps on Livelihood Activities to the Surrounding Villages: A Case of Mtabila Camp in Tanzania.
Author Details: John Modestus Lupala1 – 1School of Urban and Regional Planning, Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Abstract:Although refugee camps have been negatively perceived as places where migrating population get settled and access basic requirements from the host population, this notion seems to be different when viewed from livelihood perspective. In other contexts, Refugee Camps have played a key role as stimulants of livelihood activities. The fact that refugee camps have been supported nationally and internationally, they have attracted investment in services including; schools, health centres, markets, recreational services and artisanal skills training. Such services have been used by other communities surrounding refugee camps. Apart from providing labour to the surrounding communities, the camps have been also centres of trade between the host population and refugees. This positive element of refugee camps has not been captured the attention of many researchers as well as policy makers.  This paper examines the effects of closure of refugee camps on livelihoods of surrounding villages using a case of Mtabila Camp located in western Tanzania. Three Villages of Mugombe, Buhoro and Nyachenda were selected for detailed examination. A sample size of 66 households from each village was chosen for detailed interviews. These interviews were complemented with observations studies in each village and interview with Kasulu District and sub-ward Officials. Findings indicate that the closure of a refugee camp had negative effects on peoples’ livelihoods in terms of retrenchment of unskilled labour force, decline in agribusiness, trade and lumbering. The closure of the refugee camp led to the closure of some social services such as health centre, schools, water supply and routine maintenance of the road. These services were also being used by host population. The closure of the camp culminated in decline of agricultural production that was dependent on unskilled labour from refugees. It is recommended that alternative livelihood activities ought to be developed if communities surrounding refugee camps are to sustain their living.
Key words:
Refugee camps, livelihood activities, surrounding villages, Mtabila Refugee Camp.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-12]


2) Family Reintegration Issues of Mentally-Ill Patients Residing At Thiaroye Psychiatric Hospital.
Author’s Details:(1)Aïda SYLLA, psychiatre, Maitre de Conférences Agrégé de Psychiatrie Service de Psychiatrie du CNHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal(2)Ndèye-Dialé NDIAYENDONGO, psychiatre, Maitre-Assistant en psychiatrie,Service de Psychiatrie du CNHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal (3)Lamine FALL, pédopsychiatre, Maitre de Conférences Agrégé de Psychiatrie Service de Psychiatrie du CNHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal (4)Mamadou Habib THIAM, psychiatre, Professeur, Chef du service de Psychiatrie du CNHU de Fann, Dakar, Sénégal

Abstract: From the examinations of six mentally-ill patients who have been residing for many years inside the hospital and of two others who return to the hospital after every discharge, the authors try to investigate the factors underlying these family reintegration issues.In addition to some symptoms the neighborhood hardly condones, such as irritability and aggression, some deviant type of behavior (alcoholism, prostitution…) seclude the patient from his family. The lack of solidarity towards his family, that occurred before his relatives noticed he was suffering from a mental illness, is often called to mind to explain the exclusion to which he is subject to. The attempts to return of these patients in their family of origin are unproductive. This could be one of the reasons explaining the great number of wandering patients.The opportunity offered by the renewed interest of public authorities for this category of patients should be seized in order to build up hosting and reintegration structures like after-care centers with the hope that this type of institution will have an approach more comprehensive than traditional care structures such as hospitals.
mental illness, chronicity, family reintegration issues, long stay in hospital, Senegal
[Download Full Paper] [Page 13-19]


3) Impact of Changes in Reserve Requirement on Banks Profitability:A Case of Commercial Banks in Pakistan.
Author’s Details:(1) S. FATIMA ABID – (2) CO AUTHOR: SAMREEN LODHI-Jinnah University for Women, 5C, Nazimabad, Karachi – 74600

Abstract: This study examines the relationship between Reserve Requirement Ratio and Banks Profitability in Pakistan. It emphasizes on the effect of changes in CRR on commercial banking profitability and how it affects the ROE and ROA. The data collected for the research was secondary and quantitative time series data for the ten year period 2005-2014. Using correlation analysis followed by Linear Regression carries the empirical analysis of the study. The finding of study reveal that CRR taken as measure for Reserve Requirement has significant inverse relationship on banks’ financial performance, which is measured by ROA and ROE.
Key words
: Reserve Requirement Ratio (RRR), Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE).
[Download Full Paper] [Page 20-28]


4) Modeling Of Decision Maker under Imperfect Information.
Author Details: Latafat  A. Gardashova-Department of Computer-Aided Control Systems, Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University-Baku, Azerbaijan Republic

In real-life, imperfect information is commonly present in all the components of the decision making problem. In  decision making problems a DM is almost never provided with perfect, that is ideal decision relevant  information  to determine  states of nature, outcomes, probabilities, etc. We are known that, relevant information almost always comes imperfect. Imperfect information is information which in one or more respects is imprecise, uncertain, incomplete, unreliable, vague or partially true [1]. Imprecision is one of the widest concepts including variety of cases. We will discuss uncertainty concepts of imperfect information and it application to problem modeling of decision maker. In the first stage of the  modeling the identification determinants of a decision maker was implemented using Delphi method
.  The aim of the second stage consists of the linguistic evaluation of the factors. At the final stages decision makers model was realised by using  possibility-probability based  method and Dempster-Shafer theory based model.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 29-40]


5) Assessing Levels of Physical Fitness in Elementary School Students.
Author’s Details: (1)Weiyun Chen, (2)Steve Mason, and (3)Austin Hammond-Bennett – University of Michigan, School of Kinesiology, 1402 Washington Hts.Ann Arbor, MI 48168, USA

Abstract: This study aimed to examine the extent to which fourth-grade students achieved a healthy fitness zone in relation to the NASPE standard 4, as a result of participating in a three-year Carol White Physical Education Program (PEP) project intervention. Participants in this study were nine physical education teachers and their students in grade 4 who were enrolled in nine different elementary schools within the same school district. The students’ cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance were assessed with four FITNESSGRAM test items during regular physical education classes in the PEP year 2 and PEP year 3. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the percentages of the students’ reaching the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) on each test in PEP year 2 and year 3 ranged from high to very high (68.1% to 89.2%). The results of the t-tests indicated that the boys had statistically significant higher mean scores than the girls on PACER and push-up tests. In contrast, the girls’ mean scores were statistically significant higher than the boy’s on the trunk lift test. No significant differences were found on the curl-up test between boys and girls in the two years. It was concluded that at least two-thirds of the students met HFZ for the four fitness tests in PEP year 2 and year 3.
Key words
: Physical Fitness, Healthy fitness zone, Content standards, FITNESSGRAM test, Quality
[Download Full Paper] [Page 41-49]

6) Creation of Third Space in a Bridge Class: “Dwelling In and Stretching Out”.
Author Details: Erin Jensen-University of Utah
Abstract:Student demographics at colleges and universities in the United States are changing as the number of international students has increased dramatically over the last fifty years, especially the number of Chinese international students. American universities are increasingly becoming aware of the need for better support systems in place for international students and one solution is to create Bridge Courses. These course usually focus on “bridging” the gaps between the Chinese educational system and the American educational system. One such Bridge Course was created at a large research university and focused on mainly on academic writing. This study focuses on the experience of one Chinese international  student in the Bridge Course.  Her experiences are examined through the lens of Third Space theory. First Space is often thought of as the students’ home life, second space is focused on work and school, and third space in this case study focuses on where the student was able to create to give voice to herself. Through the use of code-switching and using personal examples, the student was able to create Third Space within the classroom.
Keywords: Third Space, Bridge Course, Chinese, code-switching
[Download Full Paper] [Page 50-55]