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Volume 4, Issue 2

Open Access Journal

Volume 4, Issue 2

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Helen Marot’s Life and Socio-Political Works from 1900-1920.
Author’s Details:(1)Jeroen Staring and (2)Jerry Aldridge-
(1)Dr Jeroen Staring teaches mathematics at secondary schools in The Netherlands. His 2005 Medical Sciences dissertation describes the life, work and technique of F. Matthias Alexander. In 2013 he successfully defended a second dissertation, on the early history of the NYC Bureau of Educational Experiments.(2)Dr Jerry Aldridge is professor emeritus at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and a former representative to the United Nations for the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP). He has published extensively on progressive education and women’s issues. Before returning to Birmingham, Alabama recently, he lived in Jakarta, Indonesia and New York City.The authors wish to acknowledge assistance by the Friends of Schenectady Library (Schenectady, New York) and librarians at the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.), Library of Michigan (Lansing, Michigan), Vassar College Libraries (Poughkeepsie, New York), and archivists at Bank Street College of Education (New York City, New York) and City and Country School (New York City, New York).
Much has been written about the life and works of Helen Marot involving her work as Secretary of the New York branch of the Women’s Trade Union League. Little has been on paper about her influence on educational renewal and progressive education. Yet, throughout the first two decades of the twentieth century, Helen Marot was certainly also involved in educational endeavors. This case study describes the life and educational works of Helen Marot during this period, which have been underreported in the literature. Although this paper will mention and address Marot’s numerous political activities, the authors’ focus is on showing how the early developments in her life pertain to her later educational contributions.
Keywords:Helen Marot (1865-1940), Caroline Pratt (1867-1954), Margaret Higgins Sanger (1879-1966), Herman Schneider (1872-1939), William Wirt (1874-1938), Bureau of Educational Experiments, Cloak Makers’ Strike, Committee on Industrial Relations, Fabian Society, Free Library of Economics and Political Science, National Labor Defense Council, New Review, Shirtwaist Makers’ Strike, Socialist Party, The Dial, The Masses, Women’s Trade Union League.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-36]

2) Parental involvement in acquisition of literacy skills in Akithi division, Tigania West District, Kenya
Author’s Details:(1)J.M Murungi & (2)G.M. Muthaa:Department of Education- chuka university.

Parents play a very important role in their children’s social, intellectual and physical development. Not much is known about parental involvement in early childhood education in Kenya. This study sought to establish the extent to which parents are involved in the acquisition of literacy skills by their children. The study was carried out in Akithi Division, Tigania West District, Kenya. Descriptive survey research design was used to carry out this study. Data collection was done using questionnaires and interview schedules. It was found that parents in Akithi Division were lowly involved in acquisition of literacy skills by their children. The study revealed that parents were not adequately aware of their expected role in the acquisition of literacy skills by their children. The study suggested that parents need to be sensitized on the importance of their involvement in literacy acquisition and that parents should be trained on how to assist their children acquire literacy skills.
Key words: “parental involvement”, “acquisition”, “literacy skills”
[Download Full Paper] [Page 37-43]

3) A Case Study on Comparison of Typical Chinese and Western Festivals
Author Details:Lei Xuelian-Nanchang Normal University, English Department,No.889 Ruixiang Road, Nanchang Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jiangxi Province, China
Abstract: With the integration of global economy aggravating, cultural exchanges among nations become broader and more frequent, meanwhile, some typical foreign festivals and culture have diffused into China and become popular. To some extent, Chinese traditional festivals have be pounded. Therefore, this paper tries to reveal the similarities and differences between traditional Chinese and Western festival cultures by utilizing the method of comparing, inducing and deducing. First, it focuses on the introduction of some typical traditional festivals in China and western countries by comparison, then it comes to analyze the similarities and differences of traditional Chinese and western festivals. After that it explains the development trend of Chinese and western festival culture. Finally, it brings to the conclusion that comparison between Chinese and western festival culture promote a deeper understanding of western culture which is beneficial to culture exchanges among nations, which inversely helps better promote and carry forward the splendid culture of Chinese tradition.
Keywords: Traditional Festivals, comparison, China, Western Countries
[Download Full Paper] [Page 44-54]


4) Challenges Faced by Banking Industry of Pakistan during Global Financial Crisis (2008-12)
Author Details: Munawwar Ali Kartio-Ph D Scholar Department of Economics, University of Sindh Jamshoro

This study aims at investigating the challenges faced by commercial banks of Pakistan especially five big well established banks during the period of  global financial crisis. The key performance indicators for this purpose were liquidity, profitability and stability. This study covers a period of five years from 2008-2012 and the Year 2007 was taken as base year on the basis of that the impact and performance of selected five banks of country was gauged by using financial ratios as measuring tool .The financial ratios meant for Profitability, liquidity and capital structure were calculated and average of selected ratios of five big were used to avoid disparity in size. Also impact on performance of loans was evaluated to relate it with globalization. A survey was made by developing a close ended questionnaire; a five point Likert scale was used as a measuring tool to evaluate the response of Bankers, scholars & customers.

The main findings are (I) there seems significant impact on deposits, liquidity and profitability of banking system. (II) Non Performing Loans were accumulated significantly after multi year better performance of healthy loans due to increase of interest rates by central bank to maintain the liquidity in system (III) It was also revealed that the cost of deposits were increased to maintain the books and confidence of stakeholders which has adversely affected the profitability of well established five big banks of the country.
Key Words: Global Financial Crisis, Commercial Banks ,  Deposits , Liquidity, profitability, Non Performing Loans

[Download Full Paper] [Page 55-62]

5) Impact of Group-study and Self-study on Learning Abilities of Students at the University Level
Author Details: Dr.Sirajul Haque:Associate Professor University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan

The universities around the world are adopting various forms and patterns of teaching methods to inculcate the students with the good understanding of knowledge in the relative course of studies. Some universities lead students towards individual studies pattern and some universities leads students to follow group studies approach and some universities are directing the students to follow both pattern of studies.
Hence, students in the universities around the world are conducting their studies in groups as well as individually. This research study is aimed at exploring the impact of self-study on learning abilities of the students and as well the impact of group study on learning ability at the university level of the study. The purpose of this study is to explore that as to what extent the self-study or group study is helpful in enhancing their learning abilities at the university level.  In this research study, the unit of study is postgraduate students of NIDA. The study has taken on study from 5 different schools of the university. The data is collected from the target population by using semi-structured questionnaire during the group interviews. This research has adopted qualitative research approach. Furthermore, the research study has also explored the motivating factors in adopting Group-study or either self-study approach during the course study at the university level.
: University Students, Learning abilities, Individual study, Group study
[Download Full Paper] [Page 63-67]

6) Performance of Banking Sector of Pakistan amid Global Financial Crisis
Author Details: Dr Ambreen Zeb Khaskhelly- Assistant Professor Department of Economics University of Sindh Jamshoro

This study aims at to conduct a performance analysis of six big banks of Pakistan during the global financial crisis during the period of 2008 to 2012 Year 2007 has been selected as base year.
Various financial ratios have been calculated to evaluate the performance of the banking sector in terms of liquidity, profitability and stability. This study covers a five year period from 2008 to 2012 where as year 2007 has been considered as base year. The performance has been analyzed by using financial ratios as measurement tool. The financial ratios such as Profit Before tax ratio, Gross spread ratio, Return on Equity, Gross profit ratio Gross Advances to Deposits ratio, Cash & Portfolio Investment to Deposit Ratio are used to gauge the performance of selected banks. Moreover their credit portfolio has been examined to ascertain their performing loans status.
While conducting the research it concluded that selected banks have adversely been affected, deposits were withdrawn considerably and cost of deposit increased to maintain the books. Non Performing Loans were also accumulated due to increase in interest rates.
Key Words: Global Financial Crisis, performance, Conventional Banks, Liquidity, profitability, Non Performing Loans
[Download Full Paper] [Page 68-70]

7) Impact of Extroversion Personality Trait on Female’s Role in Medical Institutions of Pakistan: A Case Study of Liquate University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS)
Author’s Details:(1)Erum Khushnood Zahid Shaikh-Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. (2)Nosheen Khaskelly- Lecturer in SDSC Department, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.(3)Pervez Ahmed Pathan, Dean Faculty of social Science, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. (4) Dr. Rafique Ahmad Chandio- Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Human personality dimensions or personality traits have great influence on people’s relationships, goals achievements and professional success both positively and negatively. Extraversion is the personality trait refers to the tendency to enjoy and communicate being with people (Turner, 2007). Clustering of female are found in medical professional universities and they are working side by side with male. However, their role particularly, at higher teaching and decision making positions are limited. Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro is the first public sector medical professional university in Pakistan. This medical university playing a leadership role in standardizing medical education in country therefore, selected as sample medical professional institution in Pakistan. In this study researcher analyze sample females on extroversion personality trait, to explore the specific role that personality trait might play in female professional role with special focus on Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS). Under extraversion personality trait, extroverts and introverts are the two different personalities and study results shows that in Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) both extroverts and introverts female were found. Empirical analysis also confirmed that extroversion personality traits has significant impact on female’s involvement in functioning of medical university, which in turn effect their role in Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS).
Key Words:
Personality Trait, Medical, Profession, Extroverts, Introverts, Human, Management, Functioning
[Download Full Paper] [Page 71-79]