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Volume 4, Issue 6

Open Access Journal

Volume 4, Issue 6

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Impact Of Staffing On The Quality Of Learning In Primary Schools In Imenti Central District, Kenya.
Author’s Details: (1) Silas Francis Mwirigi-Principal Meru High School,(2)Dr. George M. Muthaa-Senior Lecturer, Department of Education, Chuka University, Kenya.
The quality of learning that takes place in a school determines academic performance of the pupils and eventually transition rates to secondary schools. In Imenti Central District, public primary schools have been performing poorly over the last six years in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) exams in comparison to other schools in Meru County. This raises questions on the quality of learning in these primary schools. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of staffing on the quality of learning in primary schools in Imenti Central District. A sample size of 382 respondents participated in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used as tools for data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages. The results of data analysis were presented using frequency distribution tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The study established that high enrolment trends in primary schools led to overworking of the teachers. The study revealed that teachers did not effectively monitor pupils’ progress which impacted on the quality of learning in the district. It was further established that to cope with teachers’ shortage, some teachers combined classes while others employed multi-grading and multi-shifting teaching methods. The school heads, through the school committee also employed untrained teachers. The study established the staffing had a major influence on the quality of teaching and learning. The Government should urgently address the staff shortage to improve of the quality of teaching and learning in Iment Central District.
Key Words-
Staffing, Quality of Learning
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-08]


2) Training Needs for Improving Quality of Basic Education: The Case for Rural School Development Committees in Chimanimani and Buhera Districts – Zimbabwe.
Author’s Details: (1)Mesheck Godfrey Sango– Zimbabwe Open University  (2)Erik Boonstoppel– SNV.

Abstract:This research initiative was driven by the need to enhance the capacity of School Development Committees (SDC) in improving the effectiveness of rural primary schools in Zimbabwe. Thus, the study sought to describe the ‘training-gap’ as experienced by the key stakeholders in school development. This study was guided by the following research questions: how are schools implementing the provisions of Statutory Instrument 87 of 1992, which guides the involvement of SDCs in school development; what is the state of facilities and resource in schools; how are development initiatives happening in the schools; how are school financial resources being managed; and, what capacity challenges are SDCs facing in their development activities? A multiple qualitative case study design was used to generate qualitative data from 8 rural primary schools selected for convenience of access and potential for providing rich data for thick description of SDC training needs. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with school heads and senior education officers and focus group discussions with SDC members and parents. in addition, data were collected through observing and analysing school facilities and documents respectively. Data were analysed through the scissors and sort technique. The study found out that SDCs were not operating according to the Statutory Instrument no 87 of 1992 policy guidelines; Schools did not have adequate educational facilities and resources; School development activities were not systematic; School funds were not managed properly; and SDCs had challenges in communicating development issues as well as raising funds for school development. The study recommended that SDC capacity building training may focus on interpretation and implementation of the SDC legal framework; school facility and resource requirements for quality education; school development planning; management of school funds; communication; and management of school-community relationships. The study also recommended that further research be done to investigate influences of participation dynamics on community involvement in providing basic education.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 09-13]


3) Treatment of Separation Anxiety Disorder-A Clinical Case Study.
Author Details: Dr. Kriti Vashishtha
Abstract:Children having anxiety when separated from the parents are common. But when this anxiety hampers the day to day life then this could be a sign of Separation Anxiety Disorder. This case provides knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of 5 years old Indian school boy “Rajat Sharma”. After 2 months of regular sessions, Rajat was able to attend school without any problem. The sessions also included family therapy as the parents’ relation also seemed to be major cause of child’s anxious behavior. The treatment strategy for present case includes behavioral interventions, psychotherapy including cognitive behavioral interventions and family interventions.
Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), behavioral interventions, psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral interventions, family interventions.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 14-20]


4) Surveying The Effect of Website’s Quality on Consumer’s Loyalty on DIGIKALA in Persian Gulf Region.
Author’s Details: Dr. Zahra Boroumand1, Farhang Abroomandi1Associate Professor, Department of Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.2Department of Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays, the commercial competition has been increased in many areas of business, especially in electronic business all around the world, hence improvement of the customers’ retaining, and enhancement of their loyalty has been more difficult, however, supplying their needs can assist to improve customer’s loyalty. The main purpose of the current research is finding the most important factors of continuous purchase of the online shoppers through the commercial websites. In the current research, in order to data gathering, according to surveying on fourteen hypotheses, 384 questionnaires were collected after distributing among responders, so, all hypotheses were approved after analyzing data.
Key words
: loyalty, quality of the electronic services, satisfaction, trust, perceived value.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 21-28]


5) Effects of Laboratory and Lecture Teaching Methods on Cognitive Achievement in Biology.
Author Details: Dr. Fatoba, Joseph Oba-Department of Science Education,Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Abstract: A sample of 120 Senior Secondary school Class Three Biology students from four randomly selected schools in Ekiti State ,Nigeria was divided into two – experimental and control groups. Teaching package from two chapters in College Biology were used in teaching the experimental group by a laboratory method while the control group was taught by the lecture method.  Data was collected using an Achievement Test for Nutrition and Ecology (ATNE) designed by the researcher. Means, standard deviation and t-test statistics were used in analysing the results.The two methods were effective in teaching biology, the experimental group performed better than their counterparts in the control group.  The study also revealed that male students prefer lecture method to laboratory method when compared with their female counterparts. On the other hand, the females in the control group performed better than males of the same group.
Laboratory, Lecture, Cognitive Achievement, Nutrition and Ecology.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 29-31]

6) Stability and Removal of Several Statins from Wastewater Using Different Treatment Technologies.
Author’s Details:Saleh Sulaiman1,2, Mustafa Khamis3, Shlomo Nir4, Filomena Lelario1, Laura Scrano5, Sabino Bufo1 and Rafik Karaman*1,2 1 Department of  Science, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy, (S.S); (S.A.B.). 2Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine; 3Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine,(M.K.); 4Department of Soil and Water Sciences, R.H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel, (S.N.); 5Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy,

Abstract: Atorvastatin (ATO), Rosuvastatin (RST) and Simvastatin (SIM) are commonly used drugs that belong to the statin family (lowering human blood cholesterol levels) and have been detected as contaminants in natural waters. Stability and removal of statins from wastewater produced at Al-Quds University Campus were investigated. Kinetic studies in pure water (abiotic degradation), in sludge (biodegradability) and in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) at room temperature were investigated. Heterogeneous photocatalysis using the semi- conductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) has proven to be a promising treatment technology for water purification. The degradation reactions of the three drugs in wastewater at room temperature follow first order kinetics with rate constants of 2.2 x 10-7 s-1(ATO), 1.8 x 10-7s-1 (RST) and 1.8 x 10-6 s-1 (SIM), which are larger than those obtained in pure water under the same conditions, 1.9x 10-8 s-1 (ATO), 2.2x 10-8s-1 (RST) and 6.2 x 10-7 s-1 (SIM) Continue….
Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes; Photolysis and Photo-catalysis,
Activated sludge, Activated charcoal, Micelle – clay complex.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 32-50]

7) Removal of Two NSAIDs: Naproxen and Diclofenac and a heavy Metal Cr (VI) by Advanced Membranes Technology.
Author’s Details:Mohannad Qurie 1,2, Mustafa Khamis3, Laura Scrano4, Sabino Aurelio Bufo5, Gennaro Mecca6 and Rafik Karaman*5,7 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, 2 Center for Chemical and Biological Analysis Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine. (M.Q). 3Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine, (M.K.); 4Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy,.(L.S.). 5Department of Science, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy,(S.A.B.). 6Exo Research Organization, Potenza, Italy,(G.M.).  7Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine; (R.K.).

Abstract: ODTMA-micelle-clay complex as an efficient adsorbent was prepared from a cationic surfactant, octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and a negatively charged clay (montmorillonite). It is characterized with a positive charge and large hydrophobic sites. The micelle- clay complex was investigated towards removal of the ant-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Diclofenac and Naproxen and a heavy metal Cr (VI) as part of comprehensive evaluation study to utilize this adsorbent in advanced wastewater treatment technology.
Stability studies demonstrated that while Diclofenac potassium was completely stable in fresh water and in sludge Naproxen underwent biodegradation in sludge to provide O-desmethyl naproxen (DMN) as its single metabolite.
Al-Quds Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) which includes ultrafiltration (UF) (hollow fiber HF and spiral wound SW) membranes, activated carbon (AC) and reverse osmosis (RO) has demonstrated high removal efficiency toward these two NSAIDs and Naproxen metabolite (DMN). Furthermore, the filtration results by Al-Quds WWTP revealed that the UF-HF membrane was not efficient in removing the three studied pollutants from wastewater. In contrast, the RO and AC membranes were found to be quite efficient in removing (100%) all studied pharmaceuticals. Continue…
wastewater treatment, ODTMA-micelle clay complex, Naproxen, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cr(VI), Diclofenac, Activated carbon.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 51-63]


8) Toward Zero Liquid Discharge from Integrated Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Author Details: Mohannad Qurie 1,2, Mustafa Khamis3, Laura Scrano4, Sabino Aurelio Bufo5 and Rafik Karaman*61 Faculty of Science and Technology, 2 Center for Chemical and Biological Analysis Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine.(M.Q). 3Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine, (M.K.); 4Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy,5Department of  Science, University of Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100, Potenza, Italy, (S.S);(S.A.B.). 6Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem 20002, Palestine;

Abstract: Water is considered among the most important, vital and crucial resources on earth. It is one of the basic ingredients utilized by living organisms and it is essential for achieving economic and social development in all countries over the world. The Mediterranean Countries, such as Palestine suffer from scarcity of fresh water and a significant water shortage while the demand of clean water is increasing. The water shortage can be attributed to different factors including agriculture consumption, industrialization, over pump of fresh water from aquifers, urbanization and socioeconomic development. The use of recycled water could help solving part of the region’s water problems. Moreover, many lands in the Mediterranean Countries, including Palestine, are affected by incoming desertification processes, which hinder the development and conservation of a normal agricultural and touristic economy. The specific problems to be addressed in the near future are the fresh water shortage and quality and the use of the recycled water to fill part of the gap.In this paper we discuss different approaches for wastewater recycling and water purification.
The treatment of wastewater is capable of generating new water resources as an alternative for water shortage, for reuse in agriculture, and for protection of the ground water from pollution and health hazardous.
wastewater treatment, micelle clay complex, Naproxen, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cr(VI).
[Download Full Paper] [Page 64-77]


9) A Case Study for Radiation Therapy Dose Finding Utilizing Bayesian Sequential Trial Design.
Author’s Details:(1)Fuyu Song and (2)(3)Shein-Chung Chow 1Peking University Clinical Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China 2Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA 3Friendship Hospital, Beijing Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Corresponding Author: Fuyu Song, M.S. Peking University Clinical Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, No.38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing,100191, China.

Abstract:Dose escalation trials for identifying the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) is commonly considered in phase 1 cancer clinical research. For this purpose, an algorithm-based design such as a standard escalation design with traditional escalation rule (TER) and a model-based design such as the method of continued reassessment method (CRM) under a well-established dose toxicity model are commonly employed. In practice, relative merits and limitations of these two different types of designs are not fully understood. Besides, most dose escalation studies do not provide scientific justification for sample size and design selection. In this article, the validity and efficiency of these two different types of study designs are evaluated based on the criteria of the number of subjects expected, the number of DLT expected, the probability of correctly achieving the MTD, and the probability of overdosing. A case study regarding a radiation therapy for treatment of certain solid tumors is discussed to illustrate the criteria for design selection..
Key Words: Algorithm-based design; Model-based design; “3+3” TER design; CRM design; Bayesian sequential design.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 78-83]


10) Analyzing of Sustainable Growth Rate of the Firms in Kehati – Sustainable and Responsible Investment Index in Indonesia.
Author’s Details: (1) Siti Rahmi UtamiSurya University, Indonesia (2) Rico Gunawan Surya University, Indonesia.

Abstract:The objectives of the research are to analyze the sustainable growth rate of the firms, to examine to what extent it is affected by stock price, return on equity, and dividend payout ratio, and to what extet stock price and dividend payout ratio influenced by return on equity.Data have been collected from the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) within a period of 2010 to 2013. Research population is Kehati – Sustainable and Responsible Investment Index, which comprises 25 companies from various industrial sectors. We have considered using 15 companies from the index as our sample.
From the results of regression analysis we concluded that stock price has positive significant regression coefficient on sustainable growth rate, dividend payout ratio has negative significant regression coefficient on sustainable growth rate, return on equity has positive significant regression coefficient on dvidend payout ratio and stock price. Finally, return on equity has positive regression coefficient on sustainable growth rate, however, the result is not significant.
Keywords :
Sustainable Growth Rate, Dividend Payout Ratio, Return on Equity, and Stock Price
[Download Full Paper] [Page 84-93]


11) Relationship of Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth Rate of Pakistan: (From: 1990-91 to 2011-12).
Author’s Details:(1)Professor Dr.Subhan Gaad, Department of Economics (2)Ali Hassan Halepoto, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce (3)Professor Dr. Muhammad Aslam Memon, Department of Commerce (4)Jamil Hussain Talpur,M.Phil Student, Department of Economics (1, 2, 3,4,)   “Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan”

Abstract:Under Developing Countries are always facing a problem of saving-investment gap. It has been a great hurdle in achieving and maintaining sufficient Growth rate. The Government is looking forward to attract foreign investors in the country to enhance economic growth. This article investigates the relationship among (FDI) and GDP growth rate of Pakistan from 1990-91 to 2011-12.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 94-101]