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Volume 5, Issue 2

Open Access Journal

Volume 5, Issue 2

Impact Factor 3.582

1) First Report on Arterial Anastomosis Between Transverse Pancreatic and Left Colic Arteries.
Author’s Details: (1)András Szuák ,(2)Vanda Halász , (3)Endre Gáti , (4)László Harsányi , (5)Ágnes Nemeskéri (1)(2)(5)Department of Human Morphology and Developmental Biology, Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary, 1094 Budapest, Tűzoltó utca 58. (3)(4)Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary, 1082 Budapest, Üllői út 78.

Background: The abdominal aorta is supplying the digestive tract with three unpaired arteries, which are connected during the early intraembryonic development through the longitudinal anastomosis of Tandler. If the anastomotic system does not regress completely, variant connections may remain.
Methods: During routine dissection of a female cadaver an anomalous artery was found.
Results: This artery formed an anastomosis between left colic, and transverse pancreatic arteries. The celiac trunk showed normal trifurcation. The common hepatic artery gave off the right gastric, the proper hepatic and the gastroduodenal branches. The gastroduodenal artery had a bifurcation to transverse pancreatic and right gastroomental arteries. Transverse pancreatic gave origin with a common trunk to the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal and the anastomosis forming vessel. The anastomosis turned from the front of the superior mesenteric artery to the back of superior mesenteric vein. Superior and inferior mesenteric arteries had primary branches according to normal anatomy.Conclusion: Occurrence of such variation stresses the importance of preoperative angiography in abdominal surgery. Surgical relevance in pancreatic resections: this variant artery must be ligated to avoid bleeding during intervention. Furthermore, this variant anastomosis can be a hidden source of bleeding in severe necrotizing type of acute pancreatitis due to erosion.
Key words: anomalous artery, interstem anastomosis, celiac trunk, inferior mesenteric artery, pancreas
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-08]


 2Role of Micro Finance in Poverty reduction: A case study of Khushhali Bank limited Larkana and Sukkur.
Author’s Details: (1)Prof Dr Ambreen Khaskhelly –Chairperson Department of Economics University of Sindh Jamshoro(2)Munawwar Kartio – Ph D Scholar, Department of Economics University of Sindh Jamshoro(3)Albeena Mirza –Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Sindh Jamshoro(4)Aisaha Basheer Shah- Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration University of Sindh Jamshoro (5)Ms Tanveer Mustafa, MBA University of Sindh Campus Larkana

This Research study is aimed at to elaborate the role of micro finance on poverty alleviation in Pakistan, a case study of Khushhali Bank of Pakistan was conducted. The objective of this research study is to shed light on the means which may cause the reduction in poverty, to uplift the standard of living of the poor on sustainable grounds and to augment the economic growth and development. Micro credit is basically an alternative of formal credit hence its role was evaluated. A close ended questionnaire was used as measurement tool to collect data from primary sources. The questionnaire contains several aspects like improvement in standard of life, loan sanctioning Turnaround Time, the rate of interest charged and what customers feel in terms of asset building, profitability and improvement of standard of life. It was concluded from this study that micro financing is relatively easy and quickly granted as compared to formal lending. Customers have easy approach and dealing environment is customer friendly. However rate of interest is quite high than that of commercial lending due to one reason that it comes in the purview of clean lending as no collateral is involved. Recommended that rate of interest should be reduced and amount of loan should be increased to cater the needs of poor and maturity should also be at least of one year from date of advance and in case of agri sector it should be not less than crop cycle. Moreover it is suggested that network of branches should be widened to cater the needs of masses living in rural areas.
Key Words: Micro Finance, Poverty Alliviation, Khushhali Bank, Pakistan
[Download Full Paper] [Page 09-16]


3) Employee volunteer self-regulation and strengthening employee political representation.
Author Details: Riki Galia – Kinneret Academic College, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Israel

This article offers an in-depth study of self-regulation of a bank’s employee volunteers as a modality of organizational control from the late 1970s onwards. It also seeks to discuss the affinity between these methodical and intentional organizational practices and other parallel formative events in the sphere of the bank’s industrial relationships.The paper is based on a case study in a privately-owned Israeli bank, from its establishment in 1935 until the late 1970s. Research data was collected using semi-structured interviews and archive material, including dozens of bank bulletins published from 1964 onwards. The article follows the transformation in the self of the bank’s employee, from a passive object of generous workplace health, education, and financial aid welfare programs – established together with the bank itself – to an autonomous and competitive individual who, from the late 1970s onwards, was required to initiate, plan, and participate in community volunteering, to advance bank sales. The article also demonstrates that organizational control of the employee’s self-intensified parallel to greater political status and importance of employee representation during the 1970s.The study challenges positivistic managerial literature that avoids discussing social repercussions of managerial practices of self-construction for volunteering employees. Furthermore, the study raises questions for further research about the nature of the link between corporate volunteering and issues concerning labor relations, such as acceptance or resistance by employees and their representatives of managerial control of self.
Employee volunteering, self-regulation, normative managerial discourse, employee representation, industrial relations, welfare capitalism
[Download Full Paper] [Page 17-26]


4) Systemic Corruption in Mexican High Schools: Fear and Favoritism Undermine Teacher Performance.
Author’s Details: (1) María Trinidad Cerecedo-Mercado*, Carlos Topete-Barrera and Edgar Oliver Cardoso-Espinosa *Corresponding author:  María Trinidad Cerecedo-Mercado, PhD – Sección de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Comercio y Administración, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación Carpio #471, Col. Plutarco Elías Calles, 11340, México, D.F., México. Phone: +52 55 729 6000 Ext. 61580

(2)Carlos Topete-Barrera: Sección de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Comercio y Administración, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación Carpio #471, Col. Plutarco Elías Calles, 11340, México, D.F., México.(3)Edgar Oliver Cardoso-Espinosa: Sección de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Comercio y Administración, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Prolongación Carpio #471, Col. Plutarco Elías Calles, 11340, México, D.F., México.
Systemic corruption in educational institutions, according to the literature, tends to result from monopoly power in one-person decision-making organs (implying inadequate accountability mechanisms). The present study aimed to evaluate the exercise of power in a large public high school system in Mexico with well-reported poor educational outcome. Based on 27 in-depth interviews, there was abundant evidence of systemic corruption, in which the promotion of self-interest apparently takes priority over the educational mission. Consequently, an analysis was made of the mechanisms of a self-interested management style that are reportedly most detrimental to educational objectives. In this sense, the interviews strongly suggest that fraud is only a secondary mechanism, and that three mechanisms based on fear and favoritism undermine the academic initiative of teachers as well as the quality of academic programs: (i) favoritism is the main criteria for hiring/promoting teachers and selecting principals; ii) an atmosphere of fear, imposed by self-serving principals to protect corruption-derived benefits, causes many teachers to adopt a psychological self-protection mechanism, which begins with the avoidance of criticism of anti-pedagogical policies and eventually leads to a minimum effort in all professional activities; (iii) a self-serving management style triggers a power struggle by strengthening opportunistic coalitions; these self-serving groups prioritize political convenience in curriculum development and involve many teachers in the promotion of self-interest.
Key words: clientelism, corruption, favoritism, fraud, mismanagement, teacher demotivation.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 27-49]


5) A Lesson from a Fatal Case of Leptospirosis.
Author’s Details: Antonina Giammancoab*, Angelo B. Cefalùab*, Davide Notob, Maria D. Pannoab, Baldassare Caninoa, Antonina Gancib, Giustina Vitalec, Carlo M. Barbagalloab, Maurizio R Avernaab# a Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy b Unità Operativa di Medicina Interna e Dislipidemie Genetiche, AOUP “Paolo Giaccone”, Palermo Italy c Unità Operativa di Diagnostica Specialistica Malattie Diffusive, AOUP “Paolo Giaccone”, Palermo Italy *These two authors contributed equally to this work

# Corresponding author: Maurizio Averna, M.D. Professor of Internal Medicine – Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (DIBIMIS) Policlinico “Paolo Giaccone” University of Palermo Via del Vespro 141 90127 Palermo – Italy
Leptospirosis is probably the most widespread and prevalent zoonotic disease in the world and it is difficult to diagnose. Therefore, the disease is frequently not recognized and consequently severely neglected. This infectious disease is re-emerging globally and numerous outbreaks have occurred worldwide during the past decade. It may occur wherever the risk of direct or indirect exposure to urine or kidneys of infected animals is present.  Leptospirosis is likely to be underestimated because many patients have mild or subclinical infection and serological testing is imperfect and not always performed. Here it is presented a fatal case of Leptospirosis in Sicily, occurred at the Internal Medicine Division of the University Hospital of Palermo.
Key Words: Leptospira interrogans, spirochaetes, human infection, rash, multi-organ failure
[Download Full Paper] [Page 50-55]


6) Haitian Builds Intrapreneurs.
Author’s Details: (1)Ruchi Pathak, (2)Meghna Sharma – 1Research Scholar-Amity University, Amity International Business School, A-125, Noida (UP), INDIA 2Faculty- International Business and Strategy-Amity University, Amity International Business School, A-125, Noida (UP), INDIA

This real life case explains the term Intrapreneurship with its own story. This case provides an opportunity to examine role of leadership and Entrepreneurship in the context of Haitian International and will also help in understanding the role of clear organizational policies, channels of communication in taking a decision. This case has also discussed some assumptions and dilemmas faced by the protagonist, before taking a decision. This case study reveals the dilemmas of an employee of Haitian International, who was offered a better opportunity then regular working, but was really skeptical to adapt with it easily. What assumptions he had and how he dealt with them all to finally take a decision. The case was designed after a detailed interview and several meetings with protagonist and his reporting manager. As the company and the leaders are based in China the culture of entrepreneurship mindset in India as well as China was analyzed before the writing took place. This case outlines all situations from protagonist’s point of view, what was unknown and what was known to him. This case gives insights on what all pressures he faced, what assumptions are being made and the end points that helped him to take a decision. This case can be a good resource for discussions among management students and corporate Managers and it can be implemented in their organizational policies before they are offered to employees. Employees who are being offered to be intrapreneurs can use it as a guide, if they are stuck somewhere, before they make a decision.
Keywords: Intrapreneurship, Leadership, Organizational Performance.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 56-60]


7) Strategic Implications and Competition for a Chocolate Brand: XYZ India.
Author’s Details: Semila Fernandes, M.Phil, MBA, PGDIPR Asst. Professor – Marketing – Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Bengaluru – (Constituent of Symbiosis International University) #95/1, 95/2, Electronics City, Phase-1, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560 100

It was Saturday evening and Kylie West, the Chief Marketing Officer of leading chocolate manufacturer ABC Ltd. sipped her fifth coffee as she pored over the two-page document on her desk prepared by her new team. The last few weeks had been of great turmoil. It all began when she was presented with two very important reports which contained worrying data presented by her sub-ordinate. The first document contained the quarterly report of the brand perception survey carried out to check the brand health and positioning of her key chocolate brand XYZ and other chocolates (Exhibit III). The report showed a widening gap in the perceptions, and revealed the changing dynamics of the population. The consumer was changing his preferences and Kylie had to do something quickly to meet the challenge posed by the foreign brands of chocolate which were flocking to fill the gap, challenging the key brand. The second document contained a report on the trends in the chocolate category (Exhibit IV). The shifting trends supported the previous report on changing perceptions. Kylie was contemplating expansion into new categories and was skeptical about their success. There was also the risk of damaging the brand name if she decided to extend the line or enter a new category.

A bunch of fresh graduated were set to work on these two problems and were assigned the task of coming up with workable solutions. To help them get a gist of what the company is about, and the background to the brand and the company, Kylie got compiled a set of past documents and reports.

  1. The story behind the brand (Exhibit I)
  2. Key Financials
  3. The various products and brands owned by the chocolate division, their introduction and stage in the product life cycle (Exhibit I)
  4. The various campaigns launched by ABC over the years which ensured the positioning the company was trying to achieve
  5. The Marketing Mix and Product Strategies for XYZ
  6. The Brand Strategy, Brand Identity, Brand Model and other Brand Metrics important for ABC’s XYZ chocolate brand.
  7. The Report on Opportunity analysis (Exhibit II)
  8. The Latest report on Category Attractiveness
  9. New products in the market and their acceptance (Exhibit IV)
  10. The Perceptual Map for XYZ (Exhibit V)

Equipped with this data, the task for the team was to come up with a set of recommendations and suggestions to move forward considering the problem statement (Exhibit VI). Mary read the document at her desk on more time. She knew she would have to make a few radical decisions.
Keywords: Brand strategy, positioning, Chocolate, perceptual map

[Download Full Paper] [Page 61-65]


8) Pseudoureterocele – A Case Report.
Author’s Details: (1) Suresh Rao, (2) Siva Konduru & (3) T. Ramesh Rao (1)(3)Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad & Tobago. (2)Consultant Radiologist, Medical Imaging Department, Sangre Grande General Hospital, Trinidad and Tobago. CORRESPONDING ADDRESS: Dr. Suresh R Rao – Department of Preclinical Sciences, Anatomy & Cell Biology Unit Faculty of Medical sciences The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad

Pseudoureteroceles are acquired dilatations of the submucosal portion of the distal ureter that mimic simple ureteroceles. Pseudoureteroceles are more likely to be associated with ipsilateral upper tract obstruction and have asymmetric intravesical dilatation.  The urologist should be aware of this deformity, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the anatomical details and familiarity with these anomalies for correct diagnosis and appropriate management, for the majority of pseudoureterocele are related to the malignancy of the bladder.
Key Words:
Pseudoureterocele, ureterocele, cystoscopy.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 66-68]