Skip to content

Volume 7, Issue 9

Open Access Journal

Volume 7, Issue 9

Impact Factor 4.428

1) Caroline Pratt’s Do-With Toys and Unit Blocks
Author Details:Dr. Jeroen Staring
retires as a teacher of math at secondary schools in The Netherlands on October 5, 2018. He holds a BA in Medicine, a BA in Mathematics, two professional Masters (SEN and Pedagogy), and an MSc in Anthropology. His 2005 Medical Sciences dissertation describes the life, work, and technique of Frederick Matthias Alexander. His 2013, second, dissertation describes the early history of the NYC Bureau of Educational Experiments

This study sketches the early history of Caroline Pratt’s Do-With Toys™ and her Unit Blocks.
Key Words:
Anna Bryan, Josephine Emerson, Helen Marot, Patty Smith Hill, Caroline L. Pratt, Edna Louise Smith, Jessie Stanton. Bureau of Educational Experiments, Do-With Toys™, Hill Floor Blocks, Open-Air School for Girls and Boys, Play School (later renamed City and Country School), Progressive Education, Unit Blocks.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-27]

2)Corporate Governance on Firm’s Financial Performance: Evidence from Pakistan
Author’s Details:(1)Shama Noreen (2)Hafiz Haroon Khan (3)Fouzia Majeed
(1)(2)(3)Department of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat Sub campus Narowal Corresponding author : Shama Noreen

This experimental research for listed firms in Pakistan is conducted to examine the link between corporate governance and firm performance. In this research corporate governance is evaluated the set of variables, including CEO duality, board size, board meeting, and audit committee and board independence.  The performance of the firm is measured by the three different method which are (i) return on asset (ROA), (ii) return on equity (ROE), (iii) Tobin’s Q. Using the regression least squares method on 56 listed firms in Karachi stock exchange for the period of 2013 to 2017 for the period of five years, the findings of this research point out the several effects of corporate governance on firm performance. . Results of this study CEO, board size, board meetings and audit committee have positive impact on the firm’s financial performance in Pakistan which is measured by the return on asset (ROA).  Board Independence has a negative impact on the firm’s financial performance.
Key words: Corporate Governance, Financial Performance, Listed Firms, Pakistan
[Download Full Paper] [Page 28-36]

3) A Rare Case of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Sri Lanka
Author’s Details:(1)Dushantha Madegedara (2)Asela Rasika Bandara (3)Sachini Seneviratne (4)Samadara Nakandala (5)Rathnayake R.M.D.H.M – (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)Teaching Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Corresponding author Dushantha Madegedara (

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease, found approximately 1 in 1,000,000 in general population.LAM is characterized by progressive non-neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle-like LAM cells resulting in destruction and cystic remodeling of lung parenchyma. Progressive dyspnoea, recurrent pneumothorax, chylothorax, cough, and hemoptysis are the usual manifestations of the disease. Demonstration of diffuse cysts in lung parenchyma in high resolution computered tomography (HRCT) with typical clinical features can diagnose lymphangioleiomyomatosis without histology, which is necessary for uncertain cases. LAM almost exclusively occurs females of reproductive age group. However rare cases of LAM have been reported in children and postmenopausal females and even in men. We describe a rare case of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a postmenopausal Sri Lankan woman.
– Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pleural effusion, cystic lung diseases, mTOR inhibitors
[Download Full Paper] [Page 37-42]

4) Economic Recession, Women, Grassroots Governance and Nigeria’s Development Aspiration: Challenges from the Fourth Republic
Author’s Details:(1)Modupe AKE PhD-Department of Political Science and International Relations College of Business and Social Science – Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria(2)Leke OKE, PhD-Department of Political Science, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Ekiti state university, Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria.

Proponents of grassroots/local government envisaged a developmental system that will serve as a springboard for national development. This is anchored on the belief that grassroots development forms the basis for national development since it has a direct bearing on the citizens. However, successive governmental attempts at heralding development from this tier have been jeopardized by male dominance of the political terrain at this level of governance. This becomes compounded and more worrisome with the current economic recession the country has been plunged into with its attendant deleterious impacts on women and development. Utilizing secondary sources of data, this paper avers that the prevailing economic realities in Nigeria today are such that are impacting on women empowerment and political participation in all strata of governance with implication for development and good governance. The paper, therefore, canvasses the provision of economic and democratic incentives towards liberating women and heralding the national development
Key Words
: Economic Recession, Women, Grassroots governance, Development, and National Development
[Download Full Paper] [Page 43-50]

5) Effect of Macro-Economic Variables on Economic Growth of Pakistan
Author’s Details:(1)Shama Noreen (2)Amara Azeem (3)Iqra Iftikhar (4)Sadia Shahbaz-Department of Management Sciences, University of Narowal

The point of this paper is to look at the effect of macroeconomic factors includes inflation rate, interest rate, exchange rate, and export rate on economic growth of Pakistan. The optional information has been taken for the years from1968 to 2017.The result from linear regression model explain that inflation rate spread negative and insignificant  impact on Pakistan economic growth while both interest rate and exchange rate spread negative and significant impact on Pakistan economic growth and export spread positive and significant impact on Pakistan economy.Therefore,all factors having less effect on monetary development of nation as contrast with different elements which put a genuine effect on Pakistan economy condition
Key words: Economic growth; inflation; interest rate; exports; exchange rate; Pakistan

[Download Full Paper] 
[Page 51-57]

6) Research Paper on Significance of Code Optimisation
Author’s Details: (1) Swati Sharma-Dronacharya College of Engineering, Computer Science (2)Prerna Mangla-Dronacharya College of Engineering, Computer Science (3)Preeti Kumari-Dronacharya College of Engineering, Computer Science

Optimization is the field where most compiler research is prepared today. The tasks of the Front-end (scanning, parsing, semantic analysis) are well implicit and optimized Code generation is moderately straightforward. Optimization, on the other hand, still retains a sizable measure of mysticism. High-quality optimization is more of an art than a science. Compilers for mature languages aren’t judged by how well they analyse or analyse the code—you just suppose it to do it right with a minimum of hassle—but Instead by the quality of the object code they produce. There is a need to diminish programmers’ burden so that programmers give attention to high level concept without worrying about act issues. Optimization is the process of converting a piece of code to make more efficient (either in terms of time or space) without changing its output or side-effects. Leads to the enhancement of machine code and/or intermediate code produced by other phases of the compiler. These developments can result in reduced run time and/or space for the object program
Code Optimisation
[Download Full Paper] [Page 58-64]