Skip to content

Volume 8, Issue 3

Volume 8 , Issue 3

1) Predicting Currency Moves (A Techno retrospective analysis)
Author Details: Imran Ali Khan*, Muhammad Naseem**& Mubashir Ahmad*** Azhar Khan, Fahad Ali Khan, Faisal Hassan*Main Author of the Paper, MS Finance, Foreign exchange market analyst.Lecturer Northern University Nowshera Email:
**MS Finance International Islamic University Islamabad,Lecturer Northern University Nowshera, Email:
***Lecturer Northern University, MS Management Sciences Comsat University Islamabad Email:
The variation in the value of currency of any country with respect to foreign currencies like US $ is called Currency Fluctuation/Move. This study grasps the perception in regards to the Spot rates and forward rates relationship in different time dimensions and further the productivity with the Foreign exchange markets of Pakistan. The daily based information has been retrieved from State Bank of Pakistan, Business recorder, Yahoo finance and World Bank websites for the period 2001 to 2018 and additionally forward rates are utilized for various time measurements. During the research work the prominent models pertaining to the Price estimation like Balcksholes Merton model , Random Walk model and Efficient market hypothesis have been taken into the consideration The outcome presumes that spot rate Cannot completely mirror all expected data to foresee the future market patterns thus promote the deviation can be limited utilizing the specialized pointers which has been talked about ahead in detail. The Uncertainty and specialized pointers nexus is additionally a piece of an understanding here which is frequently utilized in the foreign exchange markets in Pakistan.
Keywords: Foreign Exchange Markets, Efficient market hypothesis, Black Sholes Merton Model, Random Walk Model, Spot rate and Forward rates.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-14]

2) Impact of Empowerment on Employee’s Psychological Well being
Author’s Details: (1)Azhar khan (Assistant Professor) Northern University, Nowshera(2)Shafqat Ali Bangash (Lecturer) Northern University, Nowshera(3)Mubashir Ahmad (Assistant Professor) Northern University, Nowshera(4)Fahad Ali Khan (Assistant Professor) Northern University, Nowshera KP, Pakistan
Empowerment as a positive triggering instrument in employees which is also considered an integral and vital part of employee’s psychological well-being. Empowerment results in productivity, satisfaction and determination of the employees working for an organization provided that it is properly monitored and there is a check and balance system. Psychological well-being includes the wellness and fitness and well-being of particular people in the office. Quantitative research was carried out with the aim to find the impact of empowerment on employee’s psychological well-being. Adopted questionnaire was used for the collection of primary data. Random sample techniques were used.  In this regards, data was collected from 50 executive level employees of Pakistan State Oil and Attock Refinery Limited. Two hypotheses were tested by using regression analysis. The value of R shows .461 correlations between empowerment and psychological well-being. R2 shows the impact of empowerment (Independent variable) on psychological well-being (Dependent variable). According to the results of regression, Model1 (F = 12.924, p<0.001), were statistically significant. The coefficient of empowerment was positive and significant at 1 percent. It means that empowerment has statistically significant impact on Psychological well-being. The value of F statistics is about 13 and the P value 0.00 it means that the model was fit to predict. The value R² is 21 percent states that about 21 percent change in the psychological employee well-being is due to the empowerment, the remaining 79 percent changes in the employee psychological well-being is due to other factors which is unexplained by this model. So the analysis reject the null hypothesis that sate that empowerment has no impact on employee psychological well-being. And accepted alternative hypothesis of this study which was “Empowerment have positive impact on Employee Psychological Well-being”. Company identified a positive relationship between empowerment and psychological well-being. The finding of this study shows that company should empower employees to give them that psychological feeling is being committed to the organization. Committed to an organization is strength because psychological empowerment plays a vital role in commitment of employees towards that every organization.
Key words: Empowerment, Psychological well-being.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 15-24]

3) Love and Social Trend in Two Female African Novels
Author Details: Dr. Labo Bouché Abdou-Full Time lecture, Dept. of English, University Abdou Moumouni-Niamey-Niger
Love in both traditional and modern African societies is seen as a peculiar act conditioned by the society. This inner- feeling which is supposed to be a self-devotion towards a partner becomes the concern of a community in the African context. Among the Igbo- living in the southern part of the Federal Republic of Nigeria- for example, Life is dictated and oriented by a set of traditional principles; and each member of the community is responsible in preserving and promoting these social values. It is the same with the Hausa people living in the Northern part of Nigeria and depicted in Alkali’s work; they have also their own ways. All individuals including dead, ancestors, spirits, gods and slaves directly or indirectly interfere to regulate these principles. Each person shall act in accordance with his customs and beliefs and everybody must fight to achieve some kind of social unity. This paper titled “Love and Social Trend in Two Female African Novels”, will be an assessment of two well-known Nigerian female novelists’ works: Zaynab Alkali and Flora Nwapa. A socio-comparative approach will be used while developing the topic
Key words:
love, marriage, children and collective tendency.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 25-30]

4) Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies International Conference On “Gobir Kingdom-Past and Present: Transformations and Change”Tsibirin Gobir or the Genesis of a Kingdom
Author Details: Dr. Labo Bouché Abdou-Full Time lecture, Dept. of English, University Abdou Moumouni-Niamey-Niger
Tsibirin Gobir does not limit itself to only the administrative capital of Gobir. One must see the Sultana of Gobir in its whole. It does not concern the historical empire of Gobir but mainly the present site that remains from the great Gobir Kingdom in Niger Republic. Presently, with the colonial administrative division, the Gobir Kingdom includes grosso modo Tahoua region with the departments of Birnin-Konni, Malbaza, Madawa and Maradi region with the departments of Gidan-Rumji, Dakwaro and Mayahi. And even with the above cited departments, some areas (Cantons, Fulbe and Tuaregs zonal groups) are not concerned. Nevertheless, in Agadez and Tillaberi regions, we come across some Gobirawa historical cities. That is the case of Asode, Marandat and Bagazan (Agadez), Hamdalaye and Filingue (Tillabéri).This paper will put an accent, through a socio-litero-historic approach on four (4) main axes: (i) background history of the Gobirawa, (ii) colonial penetration and its politico-social change, (iii) Administrative division and (iv) Sultanate’s present day politico-administrative organization
Key words:
Tibirin Gobir, colonial administrative division, politico-administrative organization.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 31-40]

5) Determinants of Value Added Textile Exports from Pakistan
Author’s Details:*(1)Zahid Mahmood Zahid1 (2)Madiha Naveed Mufti (3)Kalimullah Shaker (4)Amara Sadaf-1, 2, 3,4 Institute of Business Management Sciences, University of Agriculture, University Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan-*Corresponding Author:
This paper intends to examine the trends, current status and major problems in value added textile exports. It will also investigate the main determinants of value added textile exports from Pakistan. Pakistan is ranked 4th in cotton production with a share of 9.5 percent and 3rd largest consumer of cotton. The textile and clothing sector is considered as a major sector of Pakistan’s economy because of its 60 percent contribution in total exports, 8.5 percent in GDP and 38 percent in employment. Pakistan’s value added textile products include bed linen, terry towels, knitwear, garments and other made ups. Total share of value added textile exports of Pakistan is 48.34 % in 2013-2014. The factors which are expected to affect the value added textile exports include short fall in energy supply relative to demand, shortage of gas supply, prices, income of trading countries, law and order situation, lack of research and development, double digit inflation and exchange rate etc. Primary data is collected from 40 textile firms of Faisalabad through structured questionnaire and secondary data on the made ups and garments taken from international data sources. The collected data analyzed employing Multiple Regression analytical technique.
Key words: 
Textile Exports,Pakistan Textile
[Download Full Paper] [Page 41-47]

6) Animation and Visual Effects: An implication to Adult Learning and Civic roles in Democracy
Author Details: Muhammad Alkali PhD.Department of Adult Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria.

Adult education is essential to democracy and development, and adult education can be tool for bridging about political, social, cultural and economic development of Nigeria. By these it is important to alien adult learning to a strategy and process that learning is made fun, interesting, and easier and to also connect it to democracy that can enable human and national growths. Animation attracts and capture attention because motion is one of the primaries attributes of a graphic that makes viewers take notice. Animations can also increase motivation because of their novelty, visual effects attract attention which can be used to democratize politics; the adult learners who are the voters require literacy to communicate and voter literacy to enable all to participate in deciding who to govern them. ICT inform of visual effect is used by citizens and civil society for networking and enhances advocacy and mobilization, locally and globally more particularly using animations and visual effects. whatapps, Facebook and posters create new modes of social interaction. The use of animation through mobile phones can facilitate the modelling of election processes and the use of SMS for networking and mobilization. In government, ICT may increase accountability and transparency, and counter corruption through more efficient administration and increased flows of information
Key words:Animation, Visual effects, Adult learning

[Download Full Paper] [Page 48-53]

7) Analysis of Wal-Mart and Costco in context of Organizational Design and Structure
Author Details: Kaneez Fatima-MA International Human Resource Management from University of Bedfordshire UK-EMBA from SZABIST, Karachi Pakistan

Retail industry is one of the dominant players in U.S economy, generating almost $966 billion a year, which contribute for approximately 5.7% of the U.S GDP annually, with employment to 5 million people. Moreover, since retailing provides a way for products to get to consumers, it also supports the $1.08 trillion wholesaling industry of the U.S. as per Euro monitor, 2017. Wal-Mart Inc. and Costco Wholesaler Corporation are both retail merchandising multinational companies operating domestically and internationally. Through descriptive research this paper is an effort towards analysis of both the companies in terms of their organizational design and structure.  The study discusses how the companies managing their organizational structure-culture and business strategy to achieve competitive advantage by focusing on 1) Transaction Cost 2) Differentiation and Integration 3) Centralization and Decentralization 4) Standardization and Mutual Adjustments 5) Organic and Mechanistic Structure
Key words: Wal-Mart, Costco, Organizational Design

[Download Full Paper] [Page 54-63]

8) Life Cycle Analysis for Glass Manufacture in a Small Island Developing Country Situation
Author’s Details: Sharad Maharaj1, Vinita Manna2 David R. McGaw3
(1)(2)(3)University of the West Indies, Department of Chemical Engineering, Office of the Campus Principal, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

A Life Cycle Analysis has been carried out on the operations of a container glass manufacturer on a small island state in the Caribbean, together with its product distribution and post use glass recovery (cullet) for recycle through the process. The analysis was carried out over a full calendar year with the following results:

  • All of the 10 of the environmental impacts calculated reduced with increasing cullet % charged to the glass production process.
  • An analysis of the sources of cullet recovered from the trade showed that, whereas cullet recovery from the Caribbean was equivalent to the amount of container glass sold into the Caribbean, only 20% of that sold into the local market was recovered.

It is proposed that the local recovery system be upgraded by waste separation at source, cullet recovery at the garbage dumps, and the introduction of Beverage Container Legislation requiring bottle deposits. These actions would significantly increase local cullet recovery and eliminate the need for extra regional importation of cullet, leading to cost reduction and lower environmental impact.
Key words: cullet, recycle, glass production, glass recovery, life cycle analysis.      

[Download Full Paper] [Page 64-68]

9) Applicability of Okun’s Law in Nigeria: A Critical Evaluation: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model
Author’s Details:Uche Emmanuel1, and Nwaeze Nnamdi C. Ph.D2 1&2Department of Economics, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

The research focused on evaluating the relevance of Okun’s Law in Nigeria’s economy. Okun’s law suggest that a 3:1 negative relationship exists between output growth (GDP) and unemployment rate. The theory suggests that increases in GDP will automatically leads to a reduction in unemployment rate. We made use of recent data set between 1980 – 2017 obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and extracts from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Having ascertained that the data set were fractionally integrated of order-zero I(0) and order-one I(1), we applied the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model. The Bounds Test conintegration result indicates that a longrun relationship exists between the variables. Bearing in mind the influence of oil in Nigeria’s economy, we introduced oil revenue as a check variable to align with realities. The result emanating from the estimated shortrun coefficients indicate that with passage of time, a positive and significant relationship emerge between output growth and unemployment rate in Nigeria. As Nigeria witnessed substantial increases in GDP, her unemployment rate was equally growing. Our finding is at variance with Okun’s law and by implication invalidates its application in Nigeria. The findings provided evidence that output growth in Nigeria is non-inclusive and such demonstrates the attributes of “Jobless” growth syndrome. Based on the findings, we suggest that policy makers should shift attention from GDP growth as such could be misleading; rather they should pay attention to structural transformations that will enhance job creation and reduction of poverty.
Key words: Okun’s Law, Output Growth, Unemployment, Autoregressive, Cointegration, Jobless Growth. 

[Download Full Paper] [Page 69-78]

10) Using Item Characteristics Curve Approach in Detecting Item Bias in a Chemistry Achievement Test in Nigeria
Author’s Details: Orluwene, Goodness W1 Ph.D  Queensoap, Memory2* Ph.D –(1)Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance & Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt. Rivers State. (2)Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, Federal University Otueke, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State

this study used Item Response Theory-Item characteristic Curve approach to detect item bias in a 60-item Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). The CAT was administered to 400 students of senior secondary III in Niger State, Kwara State, Anambra State and Bayelsa State representing Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo and Ijaw ethnic groups. A descriptive-comparative research design was used to describe and compare examinees of the four ethnic groups.  The two item parameters-item difficulty and item discrimination were estimated for each group with Proxy Algorithm and Point Biserial correlation methods while Microsoft Excel and Prism Graph pad 5.1 version, were used to compute the probability of correct answer, theta (θ) and construct the item characteristic curves respectively. The ICC curves when compared between the focal group and reference group flagged 56 items as showing differential item functioning (DIF) which were tagged biased, meaning that the ICC of Ijaw (focal group) was not identical with the ICCs of the other ethnic groups (reference group). The study was able to established, that the 60-item CAT has some items that showed biases and not all items that exhibited differential functioning were flagged biased. Therefore, the study concludes that there was an ethnic bias in the CAT. The study recommends, among others, that Item Response Theory-ICC approach should be used in educational testing in Nigeria.
Key words: item characteristic curve (ICC), Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT), Item Difficulty and item discrimination.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 79-103]

11) On the Cultivation of Students’ Creative Thinking Ability in the Primary School English Teaching
Author’s Details:Zhen Zhou- Foreign Language School, Nanchang Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China-Correspondence: Zhen Zhou

The creative thinking skill is the foundation of human civilization development and it is the most advanced level of human thinking. In the process of English teaching, developing students’ creative thinking skill is crucial to students’ overall development, which is also an important means to cultivate students’ learning interest. And it is necessary to cultivate students’ creative thinking in the teaching of English in primary schools under New Curriculum Standard. The article studies how the teacher trains students creative thinking to guide the students to learn English in primary school English classroom teaching through the discussion of the problems of English teaching, and how to cultivate students’ creative thinking, so as to offer some implication for the primary English teaching
Key words: Primary school students; English; Creative thinking; Teaching methods; Self-regulated

[Download Full Paper] [Page 104-108]

12) A Study of Strategies to Improve the English Translation Ability of Chinese non English Majors
Author’s Details: Ying Wen-Foreign Language School, Nanchang Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China-Correspondence: Ying Wen

Among the five skills in the foreign language, translating can reflect EFL learners’ comprehensive language ability. Due to the increasingly frequent international communication, there is a growing demand for qualified translators in all trades and professions, which requires non-English majors to improve their translation ability. Therefore, more importance should be attached to teaching non-English majors translation skills. Some methods and ways to improve and cultivate the translation ability of the Chinese non-English majors have been put forward in this paper
Key words: non English majors; translation ability; strategies

[Download Full Paper] [Page 109-111]

13) Electrotherapy Versus Pelvic Tilt Related Exercises Therapy– An Evidence based Cross over Study in Multiple Lumbar Disc Degeneration
Author’s Details:(1)Dr.S.S.Subramanian, M.P.T (Orthopaedics), M.S (Education), M. Phil (Education), Ph.D (Physiotherapy). The Principal, Sree Balaji College Of physiotherapy, Chennai – 100.
Affiliated To (Bharath) University, BIHER-Chennai – 73.

Physiotherapy with patient evaluation and biomechanical based therapy needs more to be focused among subjects with lowback ache. This original cross over study aims to evaluate the efficacy of conventional treatment versus of specific exercises among a lowback ache subject with anteriorly tilted pelvis. This original research was done in Chennai, India between July 2018 – August 2018. The subjects was treated elsewhere with IFT and electronic IPT for ten sessions, subsequently  he was treated by the author with ten sessions of specific exercises to stretch and strengthen muscles associated with anterior pelvic tilt were done, each session lasts for 25-30 minutes. Results Using oswestry scale was used prior and after 10 sessions with conventional treatment (P<.1) and after 10 sessions of specific exercises which has shown P<.05 with exercises alone. Conclusion: Physiotherapy with patient specific problems and addressing biomechanical causes are more effective and it’s a mean of treating subjects actual problem rather than symptoms based electrotherapeutic means as evidenced in this study.    Key words: QOL –Quality of Life, IFT – Interferential Therapy, Oswestry Scale, NMRI – Nuclear Magnetic Resource Imaging, CLBP – Chronic Lowback Ache, IPT – Intermittent Pelvic Traction

[Download Full Paper] [Page 112-117]