Skip to content

Volume 9 , Issue 10

Volume 9, Issue 10

1) Navigating Sudanese Economy in the Transitional Period: Sudan’s Path to Debt Relief
Author’s Details: Farouck Hussin (Kambareesi)*[1] Senior Economist| Macroeconomic Policy Management | Digital Economy E-mail: [1] The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Central Bank of Oman (CBO).
Sudan’s external debt stock amounted at US$ 54.6 billion in 2019, of which 85 percent was in arrears. Sudan’s continues to be in debt distress, and is eligible for debt relief under the HIPC Initiative. The paper aimed to identify the path of debt relief taking into account the inclusion of Sudan in the state sponsors of terrorism list (SSTL) by the United States constitutes as one of the obstacles to potential debt relief. The Paper shed light on the seriousness of the external debt burden and its direct impact on Sudanese economy, this impact has been exacerbated by Sudan’s large arrears, which have hindered access to many traditional avenues of external financing support to meet the developmental needs for the Transitional Government.
The paper uses the descriptive analytical approach and seeks to explore the potential options for the Transitional Government to make progress on the main building blocks for reaching the HIPC decision point. In order to successfully receive HIPC debt relief, the paper recommends that the Transitional Government should intensify outreach to international partners to secure debt relief, normalize relations with international financial institutions, and continue discussions with the U.S. government on the de-listing Sudan from the SSTL.
The Paper also recommends full implementation of macroeconomic reform, which will address the main sources of imbalances and boost inclusive growth, in order to help the Transitional Government to establish with the IMF an adequate track record of strong policy performance in the period leading up to the HIPC Decision Point.
Key Words:
External Debt, Debt Relief, HIPC decision point, Economic Reform, debt sustainability analysis.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-12]
An Unusual Cause for an Acute Massive Pleural Effusion
Author’s Details: Dushantha Madegedara1,Saman Rathnayake2,lihini Basnayake1,Ishelda Nawerathna1,Presanne Wijerathna1,Anuska lukmi1
1Respiratory Unit 2,National Hospital-Kandy, Sri Lanka 2Director ,National Hospital ,Kandy,Sri Lanka Corresponding author-Dushantha Madegedara-(

Although pleural effusion is a well-known complication of acute pancreatitis, its occurrence is much rare in chronic pancreatitis. Formation of pancreatic pleural fistula (PPF) is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis which may give rise to a massive symptomatic pleural effusion. Patients often present predominantly with pulmonary symptoms, resulting in a delay in diagnosis of the pancreatic pathology. We report a 16-year-old boy with a past history of intermittent abdominal pain who presented with progressive dypnoea and left sided pleuritic chest pain. The chest radiography revealed a massive left sided pleural effusion. Biochemical analysis of pleural fluid showed an exudative effusion with very high amylase level, consistent with a pancreatic pleural effusion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed chronic pancreatitis complicated with a pancreatic pseudocyst in relation to the tail of the pancreas, which had ruptured into the left pleural cavity causing a massive pleural effusion. The patient made a good recovery with conservative medical management. This case highlights the importance of suspecting pancreatic disease as an unusual, but important cause of massive pleural effusion in the appropriate clinical setting
Key words:
massive pleural effusion, pancreatitis, pseudocyst
[Download Full Paper] [Page 13-19]
A Study on Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis in Prison Inmates of a Single Outdoor Prison in Central Sri Lanka
Author’s Details: Dushantha Madegedara1, R. Edirisinghe 1,Saman Rathnayake 2 Sachini Seneviratne1 1 Respiratory unit, National Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka. 2 Director , National Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka-Corresponding Author- Dushantha Madegedara (

Background: It is believed globally, that the prevalence of latent Tuberculosis among prison inmates is greater than that of the general population. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), it is estimated that the risk of developing Tuberculosis is 100 times more than an average individual who lives outside the prison. Although, there are studies suggesting that latent tuberculosis prevalence is high among prison inmates, no established study has been done particularly within Sri Lanka. An appropriate estimate of the disease is essential to formulate health service plans most fitted for prisoners.
Method: A cross sectional study was performed on 94 participants (male) recruited randomly among the prisoners of Pallekale open prison. Data was collected using an interviewer based questionnaire and screening for latent tuberculosis was done by Mantoux test. The subjects also underwent investigations to exclude active disease where necessary.
Results: Out of the 94 inmates, 19 (20%) had a positive Mantoux test, out of which 6 (31.6%) had a result of more than 15mm. There were 57 (60.6%) amateur prisoners and the remaining 37 (39.4%) prisoners had a history of repeated sentences of imprisonment. 9(24.3%) recurrent prisoners were found to have a positive result. Comparison of the prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among amateur and recurrent sentenced prisoners revealed no difference (p= 0.801). Out of the 94 inmates, 87 (97.6%) were smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of Mantoux positivity among smokers and non-smokers (p=0.724).
53 (56.4%) of the chosen subjects had spent more than 6 months in prison. There was no association between time spent in prison and Mantoux positivity (p= 0.089).
Conclusion: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis, among prison inmates in the open prison Pallakelle, was 20%. Mantoux positivity was not significantly associated with smoking, recurrent sentencing or duration of imprisonment.
Key words –
latent tuberculosis, Mantoux test, prison inmates
[Download Full Paper] [Page 20-27]

4) Influence of Nanoparticles on Seed Germination Capability, Photosynthetic Pigment Content, Activities of PSII and Superoxide Dismutase in Wheat Seedlings
Author’s Details: Gasimova F.I., Khanishova M.A., Taghiyeva K.R., Azizov I.V.*-Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan, AZ1073, Baku, Matbuat Avenue, 2A e-mail:,
*, +994 50 685 50 93

The effect of nanoparticles of copper, titanium, iron and aluminum oxides on the germination energy, germination capability, growth and development, the content of photosynthetic pigments, the activity of photosystems and superoxide dismutase of wheat seedlings was studied.
Methods. The objects of the research were bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seedlings. The seeds of the experimental plants were treated with powders of nanoparticles of СuO, Fe2O3, ZnO, Al2O3, and TiO2, then sown in Petri dishes and in the pots with soil.
Results. Nanoparticles were found to express various effects: СuO, and Al2O3 decreased the growth of seedlings, whereas TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3 accelerating the growth of seedlings had a positive effect on the activities of PSII and superoxide dismutase. 
Conclusion. Nanoparticles of TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3 had a positive effect on seed germination and accelerated the growth of wheat seedlings. Nanoparticles of ZnO and Fe2O3 also positively influenced on the activity of PS II, and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme-superoxide dismutase also increased.
wheat, nanoparticles, germination, growth of seedlings, PS II, superoxide dismutase
[Download Full Paper] [Page 28-31]

5) An Appraisal of Potable Water Quality in Calabar Metropolis (Calabar South and Municipality), Cross River State, Nigeria
Author’s Details:1Abu, Solomon 2Ajah, Paul Onu
1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology 2Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Nigeria Email: ajapaulo60@gmail.comCorresponding Author:

The frequent consumption of bottled and sachet water and the adverse effect of impure water to human health prompted this study in 2018 and 2020. Eight randomly selected drinking water in Calabar Metropolis (Calabar South and Municipality), Cross River State, Nigeria were analysed and compared with World Health Organization standards. The physicochemical parameters evaluated included pH, temperature, DO, colour, odour, TDS, TSS, electrical conductivity, total hardness, BOD, COD, acidity, oil/grease, NH4-N, PO4-P, NO3-N, SO4; minerals (Cl, K, Mg, Ca, Na), heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Ni, Fe, Hg, As) and microbes (Escherichia coli, total coliform count and Salmonella) using the membrane filtration method. Results showed that most physico.chemical parameters and heavy metals analyzed did not conform to WHO threshold limits and were not consistent on yearly basis. However, the microbiological examination for all samples were in line with WHO standard. The was a significant (p<.05) difference between the analyzed samples and WHO standard, thus, making the selected drinking water produced and sold within the study location unsafe for human consumption despite their zero microbial load. The National surveillance agencies and WHO monitoring unit should be more proactive to avert such inconsistencies by regular re-evaluation of water quality.
: Potable water, physico.chemical, heavy metals, microbial
[Download Full Paper] [Page 32-41]

6) Non-Cognitive Skills and AI: A New Era of Learning and Development
Author Details: Iris – Panagiota Efthymiou 1 Iris – Panagiota Efthymiou1  President of the Interdisciplinary Committee of the Hellenic Association of Political Scientists (HAPSc),  Scientific Associate at the Laboratory of Health Economics and Management,  Board Member of Womanitee, HAPSc:  Athens, Greece

Although the possibility of intelligent machines producing investor statements or management reports may sound impartially benign, their effect will not be limited to administrative activities. Artificial intelligence is encroaching on territories previously thought to be unique to humans: judging and operating on human feelings and personality traits. In addition, machine learning approaches will face the task of choosing the most important covariates from big data with a huge number of personality trait covariates. Many studies have found clear positive correlations between “non-cognitive skills” – a large and ill-defined group of indicators encompassing personality, socio-emotional skills and actions – and economic performance and well-being. These characteristics tend to be flexible early in life, enhancing the likelihood that early intervention will minimize inequalities and improve economic growth. One of the four main skills of the 21st century is critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity. The conclusion is that the growth of human intelligence, in particular in young children and with the help of artificial intelligence, should be given greater consideration. Artificial intelligence seeks to understand, to think, and to interpret using a multidisciplinary approach focused on math, computer science, linguistics, psychology, etc. For example, soft skills mean personality and interpersonal silks that improve your relationships with your colleagues. This will help improve AI’s work experience and work efficiency. Artificial intelligence balances the soft skills of people who lead as professionals to overall development.
Artificial intelligence, non- cognitive skills, soft skills, critical thinking, learning, human intelligence
[Download Full Paper] [Page 42-46]

7) ICT Status and Implementation for E-Governance by Local Governing Body in Karnali Province
Author’s Details: Er. Prakash Pandey (Assistant Professor, Mid-Western University, Surkhet, Nepal) Er. Sonalal Yadav (Assistant Professor, Mid-Western University, Surkhet, Nepal)

Karnali is the one of the seven provinces of Nepal and is considered as a remote province due to its’ geographical location and lack of technological advancement. In this paper we tried to find out the status and implementation of ICT structures used by the governing body for E-Governance. From the general survey, we have got a generalized view that Karnali province, local governing bodies are moving in the right path to implement the e-governance but it is lacking a pace. The governing bodies are in the beginning phase and with the time span they took the motto of e-governance, we are far-far behind from where we could have been, but this research isn’t sufficient for a core conclusion and further depth research is required for better understanding of other aspects that can affect the performance of E-Governance by ICT advancement as well as test in a huge number and more depth in validity.
Karnali, E-Governance, ICT, Local Governing Bodies
[Download Full Paper] [Page 47-53]

8) Environmental Planning and Urban Deterioration: Determinants of Quality of Life in Residential Layouts of Kaduna Metropolis
Author’s Details: 1,2 Fatima Baba Ciroma  2Musa Lawal Sagada 1Stephen Zemo Audu-1Department of Architecture College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria 2ahmadu Bello University Zaria,Nigeria-Corresponding Author: Fatima Baba Ciroma-Department Of Architecture, College Of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria-Email: Ciromafb@Gmail.Com – Phone: +234 80 39094536

Various studies have highlighted different urban problems that have affected the quality of life of the urban dwellers in both developed and developing nations due to rapid socio – economic changes and increase in population. The aim of this study is to assess the perceived indicators of quality of life, so a s to evolve strategy of upgrading the decayed urban communities. The research design entails a cross sectional survey through collection and analyzing data of social and physical determinants of quality of lift (QOL) in Kaduna metropolis. The multistage sampling method was adopted as a sampling technique. The following settlements were selected for the study, Down Quarters, Kurmin Gwari and Badarawa, Kwaru because of it slum like settlement. A total of 406 households heads/members were served with questionnaires, while 380 were returned and properly filled. Twelve (12) key informants were also interviewed in all the selected communities. The results shows that more than three quarter of respondents get their water from hand dug well (M=4.2151), and a  little less than one quarter admitted to get water from Pipe borne, boreholes (M=1.4272) and other sources. It can therefore be concluded that hand dug well is the main and reliable source of water supply in the study area. The result also shows that there is appositive relationship (0.615) between Solid waste disposal system and Quality of Life (QOL) with p – value (0.003) less than 0.05. the study concluded that due to high population concentration of people, government could not provide the necessary amenities and services required by the teeming population therefore, the available ones were over stretched and became dilapidated and decay set in. the study recommends that the government of Kaduna state should embark on urban renewal which will prevent decay, clear areas bad areas, upgrade building, facilities and expand metropolis roads. Renewing the structure and facilities will enable the city to cope more successfully with the problem confronting it.
Environmental Determinant,Quality Of Life,Decay
[Download Full Paper] [Page 54-66]

9) Pattern and Disposal Approaches of Domestic Solid Waste Generated In Residential Settlements Kano Municipal Council, Kano State, Nigeria
Author’s Details: 1Fatima Baba Ciroma, 1Stephen Zemo Audu-1department Of Architecture Collegeof Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna Nigeria-Corresponding Author: Fatima Baba Ciroma
Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria-Email: – Phone: +234 80 39094536

The paper examined the pattern and disposal methods of domestic solid waste generated in Kano Municipal Council. Primary data were obtained through administration of structured questionnaires to a random size of population in the areas that have the highest heaps of solid waste on the major streets and open spaces. Secondary data were obtained from desk review method; information on environmental issues resulting from poor management of municipal solid waste was obtained from relevant literatures. The results of the findings clearly show shows that, while the communities, industries, individual communities, non-governmental organization, agencies, and pressures groups are responsible the government has the highest concern for the proper handling and evacuation of the domestic solid waste in Kano Municipal Council. The composition of the municipal solid waste in the city is heterogeneous; it contained both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials which are mostly e-wastes, plastic and polythene materials. The study also reveals that shows that, while the communities, industries, individual communities, non-governmental organization, agencies, and pressures groups are responsible the government has the highest concern for the proper handling and evacuation of the domestic solid waste in Kano Municipal Council. The study further shows that the mean score supporting the statement that lack of knowledge and awareness of improper handling of domestic solid waste may cause prevalence of disease in our community’s scores 3.455. There is no organized house to house or street to street collection of the solid waste in some parts of the Kano Municipal Council. The test of association between gender and proper handling of domestic solid waste shows a no significant association between the variables with x2=(1, N397)=1.558, P=0,212≥ 0.005, signifying that there is no significant difference between gender and proper waste handling in Kano municipal council. Generally, the study shows that In Kano Municipal Council the following types of wastes and trash are generated; the biodegradable, which includes things like load and kitchen waste such as meat trimmings or vegetable peelings, yard or green waste and paper. Therefore, the paper recommends that a there is the need to reassess all legislations regarding waste management with a view to stream lining them so that there is a comprehensive and clear role for all the agencies, various tiers of government, as well as the public including Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and community associations.
Waste, Domestic, Generation, Municipal, Management
[Download Full Paper] [Page 67-77]

10) On Monotonic Solutions of Nonlinear Quadratic Integral Equation of Convolution Type
Author’s Details: Wagdy G. El-Sayed1, Mahmoud M. El-Borai2, Mohamed M.A. Metwali3, Nagwa I. Shemais4 1,2 Department of mathematics and computer science, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt 3,4 Department of mathematics, Faculty of Science , Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt, 2m m,,4

Using the technique of a suitable measure of non-compactness and the Darbo fixed point, we investigate the existence of  nondecrasing solutions for a quadratic nonlinear -integral equation of convolution type. Our investigations take place in, the Banach space of real and continuous functions defined on An example is also discussed to indicate the natural realizations of our abstract result
Keywords: Quadratic integral equation, measure of noncompactnes, existence and uniqueness, Darbo’s fixed point theorem.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 78-87]

11) Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Rice Straw Fibers einforced Epoxy Resin Matrix
Author’s Details: aZ.U. Elakhame1, A.O. Obadein(2), W. Asotah(1), Y.J. Obe1, A.J Unachukwu1, R.G Adeyemo3, P.O Kaffo4  -1Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria 2. Honda Manufacturing Nigeria Limited, Ota, Ogun, Nigeria. 3. Department of Welding and Fabrication Engineering, Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade, Ogun, Nigeria. 4. Ogun State Institute of Technology, Igbesa, Ogun, Nigeria.a-Email:, +2348038831703.

A composite material can be defined as a combination of two or more materials that results in better properties than those of individual components used alone. Properties of rice straw fibers reinforced epoxy composite was investigated with a view of evaluating its mechanical properties by determining its suitability for industrial purposes. Here casting method was used to produce the specimens for evaluation. The materials were milled and sieved into sieve grades of 75, 100 and 150μm at different proportions of rice straw fiber and epoxy. The Brinell hardness, impact, tensile strength and microstructure were then determined. The results obtained showed that specimen composite of 75μm sieve grade gave higher hardness, tensile strength and lower resistance to impact. This was evident in the microstructure which showed a better dispersion of the fiber’s particles in the matrix, leading to better bonding as the particle size decreased. The results suggest that specimen formulation below 75μm gave better mechanical properties for industrial applications.
Reinforcement, Rice straw, Microstructures, Evaluation, Tensile
[Download Full Paper] [Page 88-94]

12) Investigation Of Physio-Mechanical Properties Of Ogijo Clay Deposit For Refractory Applications
Author Details: Elakhame Z.Ua –aDepartment of Prototype Design and Development, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. Email:,  +2348038831703
Ogijo clay deposit in Ogun state, Nigeria was characterized to establish its use industrially. The major properties investigated were drying and firing behavior, bulk density, water absorption, plasticity index, Sieving analysis, compressive strength, shrinkage, and chemical compositions. The results from the analysis showed a chemical composition of 57.09%SiO2, 40.38%A12O3, 0.200%Fe2O3, 0.055% MgO. 0.050% Na2O, 0.044% K2O and 0.126% CaO. The clay has a moderate plasticity index of 29.35%, Cumulative mass% passing (undersize) of 86, Compressive strength ranging from 1.021 MPa to 1.968 MPa and the color ranged from red brow to dark brow on firing. The properties signify that Ogijo clay is stoneware clay. It can be used for the production of stoneware, flowerpot, source of silica for floor tiles and brick making. It can also be used as a binder in the absence of standard binder.
Keywords: Compressive, Investigation, Ogijo clay, Plasticity Index and Apparent porosity
[Download Full Paper] [Page 95-101]