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Volume 10, Issue 8

Volume 10, Issue 8

1) Black Holes Hypothetical Language: Conceptual, Linguistic and Algorithmic Considerations
Author’s Details:Rodolfo Alvarez-Chilean Professor, translator and Magister student.E-mail:
The purpose of this article is shading light into the potential language of a black hole, an object of astronomical inquiry interesting researchers for quite a long time. We will focus on conceptual considerations around the very idea of black hole, to then explore the linguistic aspects of these special objects of inquiry. After that, we will focus on algorithmic considerations, involving an algorithmic-like concept capable of generating scientific ideas on the hypothetical language of black holes we may end up finding. In that sense, we will see if/or how these new insights will be able to contribute both to astronomy and linguistic analysis.
Keywords: algorithm, black hole, hypothetical/potential language, prayer/“prayer” duality, scientific writing automation

[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-04]
The Language of Cancer as Prime Number Cell Sequences
Author’s Details: Rodolfo Alvarez-Chilean Professor, translator and Magister student. E-mail:
the purpose of this article is proposing a new concept for the investigation of cancer cells within a group of cells. Basically, the idea is cancer works with a language based on prime numbers. To make the conception of this idea possible, a puzzling sentence is presented and from then on, some theoretical derivations are carried out, based on what has been mentioned.
Key Words
:arithmetic, cancer, language, prime numbers.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 09-23]
3) A Reflection on the Practice of Auto-Translation and Self-Translation in the Twenty-First Century 
Author’s Details: (1)Nwanjoku, Anthony; +234 (0) 803 776 3374 – Department of Foreign Languages and Literary Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka-Nigeria (2)Zaki, Muhammad Zayyanu; – +234 (0) 806 966 9940 – Department of French, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto – Nigeria (3)Umar Ahmed; – Department of Linguistics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto – Nigeria-+234 (0)703 156 9155(4)Sa’idu, Murtala – +234 (0) 806 961 4654-Department of French, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto – Nigeria

This paper explores, assesses and compares the two terms: Auto-Translation and Self-Translation. Automatic Translation shortened “Auto-Translation” deals with machines or software while Self-Translation represents the translator’s effort using his knowledge, intelligence, skills, tools and techniques in translating his text to another language. The world is today requires the controlled by technology, it implies that translation requiring knowledge of certain tools. A tool can be a computer or software that aids in the translation process. With the advancement of technology and demands by users, translators have moved into the high-technological stage using machines to translate languages with the backing of processes and technologies. Using comparative approach and comparative theory of translation to assess the practices, the writers discovered that machine language and Artificial Intelligence are experiencing esthetic and values issues which are the deficiencies of automation. In translation, the translator applies whatever is necessary such as instinct, knowledge and available resources to solve translation problems that are naturally in-built in humans.
Human Translation, Computer-Aided Translation (CAT), Translation Memories (TM), Auto-Translation, Self-Translation.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 24-42]