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Volume 11, Issue 12


1) Changes in Volkswagen’s Operating Principles in the Realities of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Author Details: Saeed Mousa-Rennes school of business, France

The beginning of the COVID-19 crisis caused many changes related to the functioning of the economy, the operation of enterprises, and the lifestyle of citizens. Therefore, it is not surprising that large transnational corporations have been forced to change their business policies, adjusting to the conditions of the pandemic. Thus, it is still relevant to consider how the principles of operation of such companies have changed, which of their decisions turned out to be successful and which were not. This study analyses the evidence from Volkswagen, as one of the largest and most influential representatives of the automotive industry. The authors of the study noted that the company’s activities during the crisis turned out to be quite effective. One of the main reasons for this turned out to be that Volkswagen was one of the first to meet the pandemic in China, because of which it knew how to act in case of the spread of the virus in other countries. The company’s policy was multi-layered, consisting of many components at once. Thus, managers tried to simultaneously provide employees at enterprises with a sufficient level of protection, improve the quality of formed and create new supply chains, digitalize the company’s activities, etc. Although implementing such a policy proved challenging, such actions turned out to be quite effective in countering the consequences of the pandemic. The study also compared the performance of Volkswagen with Tesla, as one of its main competitors in the automotive market. This provided a better insight into the activities of a particular strategy to combat the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper brings new knowledge for the development of strategies to counter various kinds of crises and sheds light on the features of the modern functioning of the global carmaker market.
Key Words: Volkswagen; COVID crisis; crisis; control; risk; carmakers; international economics.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-08]

2) Revisiting the Utilization of Hospitals Resource Upgraded For Covid-19 Pandemic Western Province, Sri Lanka
Author’s Details:(1) Dr Nilanthi Pathirana-Senior Registrar- (Medical Administration) Ministry of Health Sri Lanka (2) Dr K A R P Jayathilake-Senior Registrar- (Medical Administration) Ministry of Health Sri Lanka

The epidemic of covid 19 infections has made Sri Lanka to meet unexpected health, economic and social problems. It faced three waves of covid infection within the first year of infection, but third waves created significant chaos compared to the former. Government of Sri Lanka adopted many measures with the support of local and foreign donors.The Provincial director of Health, western province of Sri Lanka as the head of the most populated province of the country was the authority to manage the situation in the capital city. It resulted in quick burst of upgrading infrastructure and equipment in primary care institutions. With the control of the epidemic those institutions have no capacity to optimally use the infrastructure and equipment. There was an urgent need to address it by the authority and to devise a plan to redistribute the resources. The initial step of it was describing the prevailing status of the resources in immediate post pandemic period. Underutilization of equipment and abandoned high dependency patient care units and piling up of consumables were identified in the study. The need of preparing inventories, swift need of relocating the high cost equipment in needy institutions was suggested in the study.
Keywords: Post pandemic, Covid 19, Upgraded, Hospital Resources, Western province of Sri Lanka
[Download Full Paper] [Page 09-12]

3) The Ups and Downs on the Road to Africa’s Independence from the Colonial Masters in N’Gugi WA Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat
Author’s Details: Dr Labo Bouche Abdou
Full Time lecture, English Dept. – Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences- University Abdou Moumouni-Niamey-Niger –

Committed writer like the Ghanaians Ayi Kwei Armah and Kofi Awoonor, the Kenyan N’Gugi Wa Thiong’o insists on The Role of the Scholar in the Development of African Literatures. He thinks that this development was affected by imperialism and that these literatures grew and developed in response to that imperialism: A Grain of Wheat (1967) is an edifying example.
Taking A Grain of Wheat as support, the aim is to clarify the ins and outs of the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya’s independence process. This study will focus, through a Marxist literary approach, on three (3) axes: (i) Impact of Colonialism in A Grain of Wheat; (ii) Mau Mau Rebellion or the Fight for Independence; (iii) N’Gugi Wa Thiong’o’s Characters in A Grain of Wheat.
Colonialism, Mau Mau Rebellion, N’Gugi Wa Thiong’o’s Characters.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 13-22]
4) Analysis of the Effects of Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in WAEMU Countries
Author Details:Rémy Hounsou, Ph.D. (USA)
This study analyzes the effects of economic freedom on economic growth in the WAEMU zone. In this perspective, economic growth is approached by real GDP per capita and the level of economic freedom is apprehended by the concept of economic freedom according to the Fraser Institute. The relationship between the variables was tested on a panel data from the eight WAEMU countries over the period 2005 – 2019 using the Fraser Institute index. To solve the problems related to the heteroscedasticity and the autocorrelations of variables, the feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) method is used. The results show that the economic freedom indexes as well as some of its sub-components, the sound money and the level of regulatory efficiency, make a positive and statistically significant contribution to growth in WAEMU countries.
Keywords: Economic freedom, Economic growth, Panel data, FGLS, WAEMU
JEL: C13; O11; O43; O47.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 23-30]
5) The Role of Digitalization in Achieving Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Study on Telecommunication Sector in Egypt
Author Details: Prof. Dr. Wageeh A. Nafei-University of Sadat City, Menoufia, Egypt
The objective of the research is to examine the influence of Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA). The research population consists of all employees at Telecommunication sector in Egypt. The researcher has adopted a sampling method to collect data for the study. The appropriate statistical methods such as Alpha Correlation Coefficient (ACC), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA), are used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses.The research has reached a number of results, the most important of which are (1)  the study shows the importance of hardware, software, databases, communication networks and others, which is reflected in the organizational performance of companies operating in this sector, (2) despite the existence of communication networks, devices, equipment and others, the level of use of information technology did not achieve the required level, and perhaps this is due to the weak experiences and capabilities of employees in this field, (3) the current study showed that information technology plays an important role in reducing the time taken between customer contact and the delivery of the product that meets his needs and desires, (4) communication networks can work more efficiently and effectively than they do now, and this can be achieved through contacting customers and exchanging information among them, (5) there is a statistically significant relationship between the dimensions of digitization and competitive advantage (6) the digitization of organizations is essential in the current stage, as it provides great opportunities for both organizations and societies, (7) digitization is an important topic due to its positive impact on organizational restructuring, formal and informal structures, and business model innovation.The study referred to a number of recommendations, the most important of which are (1) the need for organizations to apply information technology and its role in improving the quality of service provided on the one hand, and achieving competitive advantage on the other hand. This is in addition to achieving employee and customer satisfaction, and achieving profits, which ultimately leads to enhancing the organization’s marketing position, (2) the need to create the regulatory environment for the development of the digitization system, in terms of training employees, re-engineering operations, and making fundamental changes in the organization’s work mechanism, forming a department to prepare and implement the digitization system in line with the nature of work in the organization, (3) the formation of the digitization system through three basic components, which are (1) the system inputs represented in the data processing system, the specialized research and studies system, the data collection system, the financial transactions of the organization, and the economic, social, technological and legal environment surrounding the organization, (2) the raw material transfer processes for useful outputs, (3) reports and graphs that reflect the output of the operation of the previous stage, (4) feedback, through which deficiencies or weaknesses in the previous stages are identified in order to correct them, (5) nonprofit decision makers must understand the opportunities and challenges posed by digitalization in order to allow them to formulate a digitalization strategy, which can lead to competitive advantages and digital communication with stakeholders.
Keywords: Role of Digitalization, Sustainable Competitive Advantage, Telecommunication Sector  
[Download Full Paper] [Page 31-55]
6) John Dewey, Randolph Silliman Bourne, Albert Coombs Barnes, and Frederick Matthias Alexander: The 1918 Controversy
Author’s Details: Jeroen Staring-Retired Dr. mult. Jeroen Staring taught mathematics at secondary schools in The Netherlands. His 2005 Medical Sciences dissertation describes the life, work and technique of F. Matthias Alexander. In 2013 he successfully defended a second dissertation, on the early history of the NYC Bureau of Educational Experiments.
This case study discusses the controversy that arose between Randolph Bourne and John Dewey over the 1918 American edition of F. Matthias Alexander’s book “Man’s Supreme Inheritance.” Not only is does history (surrounding the 1918 American and especially the 1918 British edition of the book) seem a jumble of facts and distortions, but it seems that even now, more than a century later, secrets are coming to light, secrets that beg for an explanation. Some are explained, but a great mystery remains for which no explanation can be given: Why did John Dewey have a private letter to Randolph Bourne published in the 1918 British edition of Alexander’s book? This case study is an update of the text of a 1994 booklet discussing the 1918 Bourne-Dewey controversy, incorporating new finds into the 1994 detective tale.
Irene Tasker (1887-1977); Ethel Webb (1866-1955). Frederick Matthias Alexander (1869-1955); Albert Coombs Barnes (1872-1951); Randolph Silliman Bourne (1886-1918); John Dewey (1859-1952).
[Download Full Paper] [Page 56-98]