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Volume 12, Issue 01


1) Prevalence of Depression and Related Factors among the Bronchiectasis Patients in Central Sri Lanka
Author’s Details:Dushantha Madegedara1, Rathnayake RMDHM2, Damith Nissanka2 Bandara2
(1)Chair Professor of Medicine, Consultant Respiratory Physician, Respiratory Research Unit, National Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka (2)Research Assistant, Respiratory Research Unit, National Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka. *Corresponding author – Prof. Dushantha Madegedara, Chair Professor of Medicine, University of Wayambe, Consultant Respiratory Physician, National Hospital, Kandy.

Bronchiectasis is a common chronic respiratory condition that can lead to severe pulmonary infections and impaired activities of daily living, resulting in premature mortality and chronic morbidity. Co-morbid depression is common in bronchiectasis and is associated with recurrent dyspnea, general fatigue, and loss of functional capacity. The disease contributes to substantial health and economic burden worldwide. There is a gap in the local literature on the prevalence of depression and related factors in patients with chronic respiratory disorders including bronchiectasis. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression and related factors among patients with bronchiectasis in central Sri Lanka.
This cross-sectional, non-experimental study was carried out among 164 stable bronchiectasis patients visiting the respiratory treatment unit-2, National Hospital Kandy, Sri Lanka. The relationship among the risk factors –
age, Body Mass Index (BMI), number of exacerbations in the last 12 months, Bronchiectasis severity index (BSI) score > 9, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale score ≥ 3. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). All the data were collected from May 2018 to May 2021, using a demographic questionnaire, extracted medical records and compatible history. The relationships between these variables were examined using multiple linear regression analysis. Data analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS statistics 23 software.
Of the 164 bronchiectasis cases, 93 (56.7%) were females while the mean age value of this group was 57.3±16.1 years. Out of the total sample, 38 (23.2%) were presented with depression according to the PHQ scale (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors account for 69.8% of the variance of depression, as measured by the PHQ. Of the predictor variables, BMI, the number of exacerbations in the last 12 months, BSI score > 9, and mMRC dyspnea scale score ≥ 3 made a significant contribution. The number of exacerbations in the last 12 months made the largest unique contribution. BMI was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms and other predictor variables were positively correlated. Thus, the patients with frequent exacerbations in the last 12 months, low BMI, higher baseline dyspnea, and higher bronchiectasis severity were predicted
higher depression.
Depression is commonly co-morbid in patients with bronchiectasis. Frequent exacerbations, low BMI, higher baseline dyspnea, and higher bronchiectasis severity were contributing factors. Hence, bronchiectasis patients should be actively screened for depression to improve the treatment outcomes.

Keywords: Bronchiectasis, depression, exacerbations, Sri Lanka
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-08]

2) Mega flood in Sindh and Role of NGOs in rescue livelihood of Rural People in Sindh Pakistan
Author’s Details: (1)Amir Ali Prizada-Assistant Professor-Government Girls College, Sukkur (2) Aijaz Shaikh-Assistant Professor-Deptt: of Mathematics, SALU-Khairpur Mirs (3) Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh-Professor & Chairman-Deptt: Agri: Economics, SZABAC-Dokri-Larkana 

This research investigates Mega flood in Sindh and Role of NGOs in rescue livelihood of rural people in in Sindh Pakistan.Data were collected from five most vulnerable flood affected Districts i.e. Sukkur, Khaiurpur Mirs, Larkana, Qambar Shahdakkot, Shikarpur  and Dadu.  It was revealed that after heavy rain disaster in Sindh affected three million people left their homes without anything.  In many cases specially in K.N.Shah people evacuated their houses in one hour time.  In this situation NGOs come forward and rescue the people in all  districts by providing tents, Rashon and cooked foods.It was revealed that due to poor management in all districts 1200 people were died and thousand of Live stock losses in all districts.Dadu district is more affected compare to whole Pakistan.The flood victims people are living in Schools, Colleges and Pacca Bands where few N.G.Os are supporting them.According to UN 12 million people directly affected in flood in Sindh and overall 20 million people displaced from various districts.
Key Words:
Role, NGOs , livelihood, Mega Flood, Sindh
[Download Full Paper] [Page 09-12]