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Volume 5, Issue 11

Open Access Journal

Volume 5, Issue 11

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Bilateral Calcification/Ossification of Iliolumbar Ligament.
Author’s Details: (1)Suresh Rao, (2)Siva Konduru  (3)T. Ramesh Rao
(1) (3)Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad & Tobago (2)Consultant Radiologist, Medical Imaging Department, Sangre Grande General Hospital, Trinidad, and Tobago. CORRESPONDING ADDRESS:  Dr. Suresh R Rao –Department of Preclinical Sciences, Anatomy & Cell Biology Unit – Faculty of Medical Sciences -The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad

The iliolumbar ligament plays a very important role in supporting the lower lumbar vertebral column; they extend from 5th lumbar vertebrae to the iliac crest of the pelvis. Injury to this area can cause from direct trauma and also it is quite common in sports persons due to the various spinal movements, which can develop into sacroiliac joint pain and associated problems. In this case report, we present a bilateral ossified iliolumbar of a 59-year-old male with a history of low back pain. The knowledge of ossification of iliolumbar ligament will be important to the clinicians in correct diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from iliolumbar ligament syndrome, also known as iliac crest pain syndrome.
Key Words:
Iliolumbar ligament, Ossification, Calcification.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-04]

2) The impact of Customer Retention Strategies on Customer Loyalty and Satisfaction in Zimbabwean Commercial Banks (2014-2015).
Author’s Details: (1) Chirima Darlington Tinashe (2) Chapoto Eustina-Department of Banking and Finance-Bindura University of Science Education-Zimbabwe

With the continuous growth of competition in the market place, understanding customers has become an increasing important aspect in marketing. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of customer retention strategies on performance of commercial banks in Zimbabwe. A Descriptive research design was used and the study targeted a population of bank customers and staff. A total of 75 respondents were selected using simple random sampling from the customers of 5 commercial banks chosen. Primary data was collected through questionnaires and interviews. Findings show that most commercial banks in Zimbabwe are failing to meet customer expectations. The results indicate that Customer Retention strategies have a positive impact on customer loyalty and satisfaction. Therefore, to win customers’ hearts in the current Zimbabwean economy, banks have to invest more in the improvement of the identified attributes and always keep an eye on the changing customer needs and preferences.
Key Words: Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Retention Strategies, Profitability, Service Quality, Commercial Banks
[Download Full Paper] [Page 05-12]

3) The Impact of Electronic Banking on the Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Zimbabwe (2014-2015).
Author’s Details:  (1) Chirima Darlington Tinashe (2) Chikochi Kelvin – Department of Banking and Finance-Bindura University of Science Education-Zimbabwe

The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of e-banking on the competitiveness of commercial banks in Zimbabwe. With the world experiencing a global electronic revolution where almost every business transaction can be done through electronic means, Zimbabwean banks have not been left out. The rise of e-banking in Zimbabwe poses a challenge on the competitiveness of commercial banks. The study focused on the impact of e-banking on traditional banks’ market share growth, profitability and customer satisfaction. A descriptive design was employed and a sample of 100 e-banking customers and 100 commercial banks’ staff was used in this study. The study was conducted in the capital city, Harare. Questionnaires with closed questions were used to gather primary data. The research found out that the establishment of electronic banking has brought about an increase in bank profits due to a decline in the operating costs as well as an expanded market base. The study found out that convenience of e-banking services is the major reason for customer satisfaction. The research also found out that banks have put in place strategies including increasing ATMs, integrating with mobile telecommunications firms as well as building strong customer relations as means to minimize the impact of e-banking on their performance and competitiveness. The study recommended that commercial banks should expand their services to remote areas such as the rural areas.
Key Words: Electronic banking, Internet, Commercial banks, Competitiveness, Customer Satisfaction, Profitability
[Download Full Paper] [Page 13-20]

4) The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance under Challenging Circumstances (2010-2015).
Author’s Details: (1) Chirima Darlington Tinashe  (2) Mutanda Clarence – Bindura University of Science Education-Department of Banking and Finance

The major aim of this study was to examine the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on business performance using a sample of 50 firms operating in Zimbabwe. What prompted the study are the underlying adverse general macro-economic conditions prevailing in Zimbabwe. More specifically the study investigated the CSR activities done by firms operating in Bindura and their impact on corporate image and performance. Numerous scholars have observed an escalation in CSR investments proving a worldwide growing interest in the concept. Companies are spending large amounts of money in their commitments to the local communities, work places and market places. The methodology used in this paper employed a descriptive research design. 50 questionnaires were distributed to the most senior managers of the 50 chosen firms and another set of questionnaires was distributed to a sample of 100 members of the public randomly selected. Data analysis was done using
regression and correlation analyses utilising the SPSS software. CSR activities done by Zimbabwean firms are diverse and range from sponsoring disadvantaged children’s education, sporting activities, training and supporting local SMEs, protecting the environment, poverty alleviation through job creation, construction of schools, computer laboratories for students, to road maintenance activities. The findings show that a positive relationship exists between CSR and performance; and also between CSR and corporate image creation. Zimbabwean firms which invest in CSR are set to outperform those that do not because CSR is being used as a social marketing tool.
Key Words: Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainable Development, Good Corporate Citizenship, Ethical Behavior, Corporate Performance, Social Marketing
[Download Full Paper] [Page 21-32]

5) The impact of industry-sector influences on dividend policy. The case of services firms in Zimbabwe (2009 to 2015).
Author Details: (1) Chirima Darlington Tinashe-Department of Banking and Finance-Bindura University of Science Education-P.Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe
The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by shedding new light on the role of industry influences on the dividend policies pursued by firms in developing economies.  The literature on the influence of industry on dividend policy is quite limited and mixed up. Rickard (2012); Fatani and Bildik (2012); La Porta et al. (2000) found that the dividend payout ratios do not differ across industries but differ from country to country. Prior studies elsewhere to examine the influence of industry differences support Rozeff’s (1982) model. The study utilized a causal design to investigate the relationships between the variables. Data was analysed using the chi-square technique. The 88 sampled services sector firms were grouped into five industries. The study found that the proportion of dividend payers dropped by 14.8% over the five-year period to 64.7% in 2014. The largest proportion of dividend payers has payout ratios ranging between 10% and 20%. The study found that the banking industry has the largest number of cash distributors and the constant or target payout ratio is widely used in Zimbabwe. Finally, the study concludes that industry influences have no effect on the dividend policies pursued by firms. This study has some additional implications for further research. In particular, it would be more interesting to examine the nature and extend of the correlation that exists between earnings and payout ratios. Also of interest is the need to establish if there is a relationship between a firm’s cash holding levels and dividend policy. The interest here will be to find out if firms that hold huge cash reserves have a tendency to pay high dividends or not.
Key Terms: Dividend Policy, Industry Influences, Dividend Payout Ratio, Services Sector
[Download Full Paper] [Page 33-40]

6) On the Aesthetic Effects in ChineseEnglish Translation.
Author Details: Xuelian Lei -Foreign Languages Department, Nanchang Normal University-No.889 Ruixiang Road, Changbei Economic and Technolotical Development Zone, Nanchang city, Jiangxi province, China

Translation is a kind of practice that turns one language into another language. In fact, this is an interchanging course of the form and soul of the source and target texts. This paper aims to study and explore the aesthetic effects based on the aesthetics and the fundamental theory of translation, which reveals the common principles of the aesthetical activities in translation.
Key words:
Aesthetics, Chinese- English, Translation
[Download Full Paper] [Page 41-47]

7) Sharing Sudan’s Burden: Options for Post-Secession Debt Apportionment.
Author Details: Fareed M.A. Hassan *

Sudan faces an exceedingly high debt burden for an economy of its size. Standing at 80% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Sudan’s external debt was US$43.6 billion in 2014, of which 87% was arrears. As part of the secession agreement, Sudan would take over all of the pre-secession debt provided Sudan would enter the HIPC process by October 2016, with support from South Sudan. If this fails, negotiations to apportion the debt would ensue.  This paper explores potential options for dividing Sudan‘s external debt at the date of South Sudan secession that take into account different metrics of post-secession debt apportionments around the world. Based on debt division metrics—such as beneficiary rule, population size, GDP, and land size—Sudan’s external debt obligations could range between 94 percent of external debt (US$37 billion) and 67 percent of external debt (US$27 billion).  South Sudan’s debt obligations could range from 6 percent of external debt (US$3 billion) to 33 percent of external debt (US$13 billion).  The debt division estimates based on the beneficiary rule are derived utilizing World Bank Group loans as a proxy for evaluating options available for apportioning Sudan’s debt burden as it is exceedingly difficult to trace every single loan distributed to Sudan.
JEL Classification: F35, H60, H63.
Key words
: External debt, Debt Apportionment Metrics, Beneficiary Rule, Population, Land, GDP.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 48-58]

8) Impact of Fiscal Policy Shocks on the Indian Economy.
Author Details: Rabia Najaf-Riphah international university Islamabad Pakistan

The prime objective of this study  to analysis the impact of fiscal policy on the economy of India .For this purpose, we have taken the data from 1981 to 2010 and applied the Johansen co integration test, error correction model and variance decomposition model .our results are showing that there is long run association between GDP and other variables. The prime objective of the fiscal policy is to deal with taxations and monetary policy is helpful to control the money supply.  Consequently, Fiscal policy is the way of increase or decrease the inflation .Fiscal policy is the tool to control the fiscal deficit .To run the economy, there is need of proper fiscal policy. Our paper is trying to show that fiscal policy has always long run phenomena on the growth of the economy.
Keywords: Fiscal policy, Johansen co integration test, error correction, variance decomposition, GDP

[Download Full Paper] [Page 59-68]

9) Technical Efficiency of Rabbit Production among Small Holder Farmers in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Author’s Details: (1)Ume S.I,  (2)Ezeano, C I, (3)Dauda, E and (4) Okeke C C (1)Department of Agricultural Extension and Management. Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu Ebonyi State, Nigeria. (2) (4)Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Namdi Azikiwe University AwkaAnambra State, Nigeria. (3)Department of Animal Health Technology. Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

The study measured the level of technical efficiency and its determinants among rabbit farmers in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria using stochastic frontier production function. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 60 rabbit farmers from which data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and oral interview. The estimated technical efficiency of rabbit farmers ranged from 56% to 95.0% with a mean of 23.0%. The educational level, rearing experience and access to credit were the determinants of technical efficiency of the rabbit farmers. There is a need in Improving farmers’ access to education, credits and drugs and vaccines at lower costs in order to enhance farmers’ technical efficiency for the sustainability of rabbit production especially now the conventional livestock is becoming costly.
Keywords; Technical efficiency, Rabbit Production, Small Holder Farmers
[Download Full Paper] [Page 69-75]

10) Determinants of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Production and Profitability in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra  State, Nigeria.
Author’s Details: (1)Ume, SI,  (2)Ezeano, CI, (3) Okeke, C C and (4)Gbughemobi, B. O (1)Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo L.G.A., Ebonyi State, Nigeria. (2)(3)(4)Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

The profitability of okra farmers in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra State of Nigeria was investigated. Multi – stage random sampling technique was used to select 100 farmers from six towns in the study area. The data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Percentage and net farm income were used to capture the objectives of the study. The result revealed that majority of okra farmers were males, small scaled in operation and had no access to credit. The educational level, household size, and farming experience were the determinant variables to the profitability of the farm. The price parameter for labor, land value, pesticide and output price impacted significantly on the profitability of farmers. Okra is profitable in the study area with Net farm income of N265,356. The study recommended  on the need to enhance farmers’ access to improved production inputs (such as fertilizer and seed), education and credit.
; Determinants. Okra, Production, Profitability
[Download Full Paper] [Page 76-83]
11) Study of Technical Scope Including Doctrine of Equivalent and Patent Infringement Litigation.
Author Details: Professor Kotaro Kageyama (Mr.) – Lawyer and Patent Attorney in Japan,President of Kageyama International Law & Patent Firm-Visiting Professor of Kumamoto University (Intellectual Property Law), Visiting Professor of Oita University (Intellectual Property Law), Senior Research Fellow of New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University.
The author classified inventions into physical-object inventions, by focusing on the appearance such as the shape, structure, etc. of the object, and material inventions, by focusing on characteristics of the object; and analyzed the formation process of an invention, regarding principles as important.
In this article, in the proceedings from inventions to obtaining patents, arising from technology, the following issues will be explained, focusing on principles and their utilization, common to all.
Based on the interaction among requirements in the theory of the method dividing content of an invention into its elements, the way of dealing with the problems such as relative weight, and the differences in construction between the patent law (law establishing rights) and the civil law (law adjusting rights), the author considers the construction of the technical scope (a claim) of a patent invention and the burden of proof in a patent infringement litigation. In such a consideration, the author also explains the requirements for the application of the doctrine of equivalent in each country. It seems that such arguments explained in this article have not been made so far in the world.
Keywords:Patent invention, Technical scope (Claim), Theory of the method dividing the content of an invention into its elements, Patent infringement litigation, Doctrine of equivalent.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 84-107]