Skip to content

Volume 6, Issue 3

Open Access Journal

Volume 6, Issue 3

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Unusual Origin of Splenic Artery: A Case Report
Author’s Details: (1)Vijayarani Choppala (2)Siva Konduru (3)T. Ramesh Rao (4)Suresh Rao
(1)Consultant Radiologist, Medical Imaging Department, EWMSC, Mount Hope Hospital, Trinidad and Tobago. (2)Consultant Radiologist, Medical Imaging Department, Sangre Grande General Hospital, Trinidad and Tobago. (3)(4)Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad & Tobago Corresponding Author: Dr. Suresh R Rao

The splenic artery is one of the common and constant branch of the coeliac artery.  Coeliac artery is one of the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, immediately after branching out it divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.   Variation in the origin of the left gastric and common hepatic artery have been documented but variation in the origin of the splenic artery are rarely been reported.  Variations relative to the origins of the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta have been reported by numerous investigators.  However, in the course of recent routine CT to rule out aortic dissection one unusual anomalous origin of splenic artery has been encountered.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-04]

2) Asymmetric Impact of Financial Crisis on Stock Exchange of Malaysia and Pakistan
Author Details: 
Rabia Najaf –Riphah international university Islamabad Pakistan

First time global financial crisis were started from US and then it were spread in all over the world .This crisis were largest crisis of the  world after the 1930s.The basic aim of this paper is to analysis the financial crisis impact on stock market performance of Pakistan and Malaysia. For this purpose, collected the data from 2003 to 2010 and applied EGARCH model .this research is showing that negative shocks have more pronounced impact on performance of both countries. This is more impact on Malaysia stock market .our suggested that Government should have focused on such types of issues that in the scenario how can control economy.
financial crisis, Malaysia, EGARCH, Performance.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 05-10]

3) Long-Term Follow-Up of Ocular Hypertension: A Plea for Peripheral Visual Field Analysis
Author’s Details:(1)Paul Rutkowski, MD-Ophthalmologist, 282 Harison Ave., Harrison, NY, USA (2)Christian Albrecht May, MD, PhD-Department of Anatomy, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany

This case report demonstrates the effect of the peripheral visual field analysis on the management of ocular hypertension (OHT) and early glaucoma. For 17 years, a young Caucasian male with untreated OHT showed no abnormal responses during testing of his central visual field. Five years ago a peripheral visual field test revealed a marked loss beyond the expected age-related changes demonstrating an early peripheral visual field loss of glaucoma. The intraocular pressure was lowered with continuous medication over 5 years and this lead to an improvement of his peripheral visual field loss. The peripheral Humphrey visual field 60-4 threshold test appears to be a valuable tool to diagnosis early glaucoma in OHT-suspects without apparent central visual field loss.
Key words
: peripheral visual field, Humphrey visual field analysis 60-4, ocular hypertension, early glaucoma
[Download Full Paper] [Page 11-14]

4) Diplegic Dystonic Cerebral Palsy Treated With Cellular Therapy: A Case Report
Author’s Details: Dr.Alok Sharma [1], Dr. Nandini Gokulchandran [1] Mrs. Suhasini Pai *[2], Ms. Pooja Kulkarni [2], Dr. Hemangi Sane [2], Dr. Khushboo Bhagwanani [3],Dr. Prerna Badhe [4].
[1] Department of Medical Services and Clinical research, NeuroGen Brain & Spine Institute, India
[2] Department of Research & Development, NeuroGen Brain & Spine Institute, India
[3] Department of Neurorehabilitation, NeuroGen Brain & Spine Institute, India
[4] Department of Regenerative Laboratory Services, NeuroGen Brain & Spine Institute, India
*Corresponding Author: Mrs. Suhasini Pai-Address:
NeuroGen Brain & Spine Institute, Stem Asia Hospital and Research Centre, Sector – 40, Plot No. 19, Palm Beach Road, Seawoods (W), New Mumbai – 400706.

Cellular therapy has gained acknowledgement as a novel modality for the treatment of Cerebral Palsy (CP) due to its neuro-regenerative and neuroprotective characteristics. CP affects movement and posture in childhood causing severe neuro-disability in children. The standard therapeutic approaches are seldom effective as they do not address the underlying neural damage.  In this case of 4 years 10 months old boy with diplegic dystonic CP, we administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The patient underwent two cellular therapies at an interval of seven months. The follow up assessment was conducted at 3,7 and 13 months after the first cellular therapy. Improvements in voluntary control, muscle tone (spasticity and dystonia), balance, weight bearing of the upper limbs, oromotor skills and cognition were noted over the follow up period of 13 months. Gross motor function measure (GMFM) improved from 30.59 to 69.87 %, and Wee-Functional Improvement Measure (Wee-FIM) improved from 45 to 84. No adverse events were reported post cellular therapy. This case study highlights the clinical benefits of cellular therapy with corroborative improvements in the outcome scales in a unique case of diplegic dystonic CP. We recommend that its effectiveness should be established in a more comprehensive randomised controlled study.
Keywords: Bone marrow mononuclear cells, Cerebral Palsy, Diplegia, Dystonic, Autologous, Cellular therapy,
Stem cells.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 15-19]

5) Effect of Waste Management Control on Tourism Development: Ado-Ekiti as a Case Study
Author’s Details:(1)Taiwo Oladeji Adefisoye-Department of Political Science, Ekiti State University, Nigeria, (2)Ibiyinka Ogunlade, Professor of Food and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Nigeria E-mail: and
Increasing waste generation is synonymous with growing urbanization and human development which can be controlled by efficient and effective management. Some problems associated with waste management can be very severe, particularly in developing countries where technological know-how required for recycling human wastes and processing them into useful items, are inadequate. Consequently, poor waste management has constituted major hindrances to healthy living, environmental sustainability and development of tourism potentials. Ado-Ekiti, thecapital of Ekiti State, South West Nigeria, is used as a case study. This work examined the implication(s) of poor waste management on tourism development, with particular reference to its aesthetic values. Relying on both primary and secondary data, this research found out that certain mountains in the study area (witha specific focus on Okeyinmi also known as Okuta-gbokuta-ru), have been turned to refuse sites, public toilets and even to an abode of social miscreants. Lack of political will, unstable government policies among other factors; have prevented the development and optimal utilization of the city’s tourism potentials. However, effective and efficient management of municipal domestic wastes would go a long way in thedevelopment of the tourism potentials of the city; improve its internally generated revenue; provide employment opportunities and income earnings for jobless youths; engender community participation in heritage management and ultimately, alleviate poverty and underdevelopment.
Keywords: Underdevelopment; Eco-Tourism Potentials; Tourism Management; Waste Management and Community Participation.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 20-24]

6Prophesying or Prophelying? Prophets, Prophetic Punditry and the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria
Author Details: Taiwo Oladeji Adefisoye – Department of Political Science, Ekiti State University, Nigeria, Contact: Department of Political Science, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. E-mail: and
the 2015 general elections in Nigeria have come and gone, the marks they left behind are indelible and the lessons, unforgettable. The introduction and use of electronic voting option and Smart Card Readers; the odious and provocative nature of political campaigns and jingles; the triumph of the main opposition party and the defeat of the incumbent party after sixteen years of uninterrupted rule, were prominent events that heralded the exercise and thus made the 2015 elections a watershed in the history of electioneering in Nigeria’s democratic experience.The elections which were perhaps the most expensive in the history of Africa also marked the first time an incumbent president has ever lost re-election in Nigeria. Of concern to this work are the roles which prophets, ‘prophetic punditry’ and ‘prophetictheaters’ played before and during the elections. Relying on empirical evidence from direct observations and secondary sources, this work established that Nigeria’s political landscape was wantonly besieged by a barrage of prophecies, prophetic postulations, predictions and calculations which exacerbated tension within the polity and spread confusion among the populace. While certain prophecies strongly avowed bloody and gloomy electioneering exercise, others predicted free, fair and violence-free elections. While certain prophets contradicted their earlier prophesies, other prophets went totally wrong. Thus, this puts a question mark on the sacredness and divine nature of prophecies and prophets particularly those whose predictions were punctured by the outcome of the elections. The paper concludes that politics and religious faith continue to remain interlocked in an (unholy) matrimony in Nigeria’s politics.
Prophetic Punditry; Prophetic Postulations; Prophetic Theaters; Prophelying; Nigeria’s democratic experience.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 25-37]

7) An Analysis of how Contemporary African Child-Rearing Practices affect a Child’s Self-Concept and Learning
Author’s Details: (1) Emily Ganga (2)Kudzai Chinyoka-Great Zimbabwe University, Department of Educational Foundations – Faculty of Education, Box 1235, Masvingo

This paper endeavors to highlight how contemporary African child-rearing practices affect a child’s self-concept and learning. It also observes that child-rearing practice is a prominent challenge for many parents including ones in sub-Saharan Africa. By observing and scrutinizing the common child-rearing practices in Zimbabwe, the researchers noted that some contemporary African child-rearing practices may either enhance a positive self-concept leading to enhancement in learning or the opposite where some practices actually instill a negative self-concept that eventually deters learning. It therefore, provides clear cut roles, obligations, rights, expectations and sanctions within the common authoritative, permissive and autocratic parenting styles which seem to be a dilution of traditional African child-rearing practices due to the influence of other diverse cultures, religion and the development of technology. Some parents today, seem to be a reflection of not only one parenting style, but a chameleon representation of what they consider the best parenting option for each situation. Arguing mainly from a Humanistic point of view, this paper prescribes specific implications for parenting and teaching where a strong commitment to child-care by every parent or caregiver is highly recommended. Any good parenting style should enhance a child’s positive self-concept and provide ideal learning experiences and guidance for all young people within their phenomenal fields.
: child-rearing, self-concept, learning, authoritative, authoritarian and permissive
[Download Full Paper] [Page 38-47]

8) Effect of Aggregate Demand and Supply Shocks on Output and Inflation Rate in Pakistan
Author’s Details: (1)Qurban Ali Shar-Student of MS-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs (2)Maria Shaikh-Assistant Professor-IBA-University of Sindh Jamshoro (3)Dr.Aisha Bashir Shah-Assistant Professor-IBA-University of Sindh Jamshoro (4)Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh-Associate Professor-SZABAC-Dokri

This study investigates the Effect of Aggregate Demand and Supply Shocks on Output and Inflation Rate in Pakistan.  Data were collected from various secondary sources , ie. Annual reports, magzines and newspapers.  Quah approach The place aggravator interest Also aggravator supply shocks would not associated. Those impact. of identified shocks is then estimated on GDP and inflation rate. Data of GDP and general price level for Pakistan economy over the period 1974 to 2012 have been used for the purpose. Results show that positive supply shock has positive effect on GDP while negative on prices. On the other hand aggregate demand shocks positively affect prices but the effect on aggregate demand is negative. The negative response of economic activity to aggregate demand shock may be due to the “Expansionary Fiscal Contraction”.
Aggregate Demand, Inflation Rate , Supply Shocks
[Download Full Paper] [Page 48-53]

9) Comparative Analysis of Performance of Government Sponsored Banks in Pakistan
Author’s Details:(1)Sabghatullah Shaikh-Student of MS-Public Administration- SALU-Khairpur Mirs(2) Dr.Albeena Mirza-Assistant Professor-Deptt:of economics-University of Sindh Jamshoro(3) Dr.Najma Shaikh-Assistant Professor-Deptt:of Eeconomics University of Sindh Jamshoro(4)Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh-Associate Professor-SZABAC-Dokri-Sindh-Pakistan(5)Mureed Hussain Ubupoto-Student of MS-Public Administration SALU-Khairpur Mirs

This research investigates the Comparative Analysis of Performance of Government sponsored Banks in Pakistan.  Data were collected from Five year data sample of both banks (National Bank of Pakistan and Sindh Bank Limited) will be used in ratios and for evaluating the difference of bank of performance variables from 2011 to 2016. Secondary data will be used primarily in this study. Single factor ANOVA test will be applied in comparative analysis of bank variables (Return on Asset, Return on equity and Asset Turnover). Then p-values will show the significance of relationship.Pertinent information on variables collected using various secondary data sources including Bank’s websites.  It was revealed that the p-value=0.013612 ie ‹0.05 indicates rejecting null hypothesis. So, it can be inferred that significant difference in performance based on the asset turnover of Sindh Bank Limited and National Bank of Pakistan. Further, average asset turnover of National Bank of Pakistan AT=0.0.72 is lower than average asset turnover of Sindh bank AT= 0.092 as shown in ANOVA single factor test.
Key Words:
Comparative, Analysis, Performance, Banks, Pakistan
[Download Full Paper] [Page 54-62]

10) Customer Buying Behavior towards Online Shopping a Case Study of Hyderabad City
Author’s Details:(1)Sumera Aslam (2)Intzar Ali Lashari (3)Muhammad ShariefAbbasi (4)NizamuddinChanna

The main purpose of this study is to determine the factors which motivate the dwellers of Hyderabad towards online shopping activity. All the literate people who use internet are potential customers in online market. Therefore, all the vendors in online market should devise for the ways to fulfil the needs of their customers. They should deal with reservations of customers in the competitive online market in a better way.Customer buying behavior is effected by many factors like age, gender, salary, occupation, education level, social class and family background.  To carry out the survey in Hyderabad, a questionnaire was designed and it was spread through two ways among the sample size. One of the way was that the questionnaire was sent through google spread sheets in which an email is sent to the contacts in your contact list of emails. The contacts then filled the questionnaire and sent it back through email. The other way was that the questionnaire was spread in different areas among people of different ages, gender, occupation and salary level.The result of the study will contribute to the marketers, vendors and sellers in online market to know the factors which should be emphasized in order to broaden the online business and the factors that should be stressed to motivate the online customers.
Key words: Customer buying behavior, vendors, competitive online market.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 63-71]

11) A Comprehensive Database for Offline Sindhi Handwritten Text Recognition
Author’s Details: Shafique A. Awan1, Dil Nawaz Hakro2, Intzar Ali Lashari4, Zahid Hussain3, Akhtar H. Jalbani3,Maryam Hameed2  1Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan 2Institute of Information and Communication Technology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan 3Department of Information Technology, QUEST, Sindh, Pakistan 4Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
A well designed image database is very necessary for the recognition of any language and many of language of the world have their own database for the text recognition. In this paper we are presenting the comprehensive database for Sindhi Language which is highly demanding language of the Middle East countries. The database will consist of the many words, which are written by the many writers. This is novel approach for the creating and testing of Sindhi Text. This database contains the isolated characters as well as the text of Sindhi language. The database is consisting of the images of the handwritten text, ground truth information, boxes for the users writing and lines for the text recognition. Tools for the segmentation and creation of the database have been developed in MATLAB, which helps to extract the handwritten data from the designed forms. We developed the different forms for the collection of data from the different users. This database can be used by the other language which possesses the same characteristics of Sindhi Language.
Offline Sindhi Handwritten, Text Recognition
[Download Full Paper] [Page 72-82]