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Volume 6, Issue 4

Open Access Journal

Volume 6, Issue 4

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Actor Role in Policy Implementation Disaster Risk Reduction
Author’s Details: (1)Slamet Muchsin (2)Sumartono (3)Choirul Saleh (4)Lely Indah Mindarti

(University of Brawijaya malang, Indonesia)
Disaster risk reduction is a comprehensive design in the development of a framework for disaster risk reduction with a proactive approach that aims to increase the capacity of governments, communities, the private sector in disaster management, both in situations of catastrophe does not occur, and in a situation there is a potential disaster.
Implementation of disaster management policies in Indonesia as stated in Law Namber 24 of 2007 provides guidance on disaster management system with clear that success in disaster management is the responsibility of governments, and local governments. Because of the progress in addressing the wide scope of the disaster, the disaster management becomes the responsibility together. The involvement of actors in the implementation of disaster risk reduction policy, both actors the State, public, private and international agencies be crucial to success in disaster management.
This study aims to describe and analyze the role of actors in the implementation of disaster risk reduction policy 2014 eruption of Mount Kelud in East Java. The study uses in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in disaster management, the type of qualitative research and descriptive approach. The results showed that the involvement and collaboration between actors in the implementation of disaster risk reduction policy both actors the State, society actors, private sector and institutional actors on international, cooperative and coordinative in making a strategic step towards disaster risk reduction eruption of
Mount Kelud 2014 in East Java, so that the implementation of disaster management policies can be performed optimally. Recommendations generated in this study is, the portion of the role of state actors is still dominant in the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction policies eruption of Mount Kelud, and has not resulted in a collaboration of an actor who balanced between state actors, civil society, private sector and NGOs, so that the necessary development of the role of the actor in the implementation of policies simultaneous and synergistic.
Keyword : Actor, Policy, Implementation, Disaster, Risk Reduction
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-10]

2) Challenges Associated With Effective Fuel Management in Oil Marketing Companies
Author’s Details: 
Shiza Riaz1, Kaleemullah Khan Khilji2, Muhammad Wisal Ikram3, Matti Ullah4
1Institute of Business Management, Department of Logistics & Supply Chain Management, Korangi Creek, Karachi 75190, Pakistan -Supervisor: Sufian Farrukh, University of Wollongong, Australia.

This study outlines the topmost challenges faced by the Oil & Gas industry in Pakistan specifically the Oil Marketing Companies (OMC). It also assesses the awareness level for Fuel Telemetry System for effective fuel management across the supply chain in order to address the identified problems which include fuel leakages, contamination, fuel theft, spillages, reconciliation inaccuracies, product loss due to volatility & calibration and instrumentation challenges for precise measurements. The analysis of the survey results indicate that majority of the Oil Marketing Companies are facing issues mainly related to fuel loss & leakages (Ranked 8/10), incompatible systems (6.7/10), real-time fuel stock information gathering (6.6/10). 47% of the respondents indicate fuel losses of greater than 500 Liters per month on an average. The industry mainly relies on manual stock reconciliation methods (12%) and manual collection of information instead of an integrated technological application. Findings reveal that the level of awareness about Fuel Telemetry systems is acceptable (50%) but no Oil & Marketing Company has yet implemented such a system in Pakistan. However, the industry must look into the trade-offs before actually resisting or declining the application of Telemetry in effective Fuel Management.
Keywords: Fuel leakages, Fuel contamination, Fuel theft, Fuel telemetry, Tracking devices
[Download Full Paper] [Page 11-13]

3) Presence of Accessory Mandibular Foramina and Their Clinical Implications
Author’s Details: T Ramesh Rao1, Ravi Teja Chitturi2, Sudhiksha S3 & Suresh R Rao1
(1)Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad & Tobag- (2)School of Dentistry, FMS, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago. (3)Sharavathi Dental College, Shivamoga, India CORRESPONDING ADDRESS: Dr. Suresh R Rao Department of Preclinical Sciences, Anatomy & Cell Biology Unit-Faculty of Medical sciences The University of the West Indies St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago TEL: 1-868-645-2640 ext: 4627 (off) 1-868-7491104 (Cell)

A number of studies have reported that the accessory mandibular foramina are located mainly on the internal aspect of the body of the mandible. Accessory foramina are constant structures of human mandible, but their presence may result in complications to clinical dental care, if not properly identified, revealing the importance of studying the incidence of these variations. Furthermore, failures in the anaesthesia by regional blockade of the inferior alveolar nerve are reported due to the presence of these foramina. During the routine visual inspection of the mandible collection housed in the department of anatomy for osteology demonstration to medical and dental students, we found the presence of accessory foramina on the inner and outer surface of the body of the mandible. The knowledge of such anomaly is immensely helpful for dentists to take necessary precaution while giving anaesthesia for any dental procedures in this region.
Keywords: mandible, mandibular foramen, mental foramen, accessory foramina
[Download Full Paper] [Page 14-17]

4) Non – Governmental Organizations and Women Political Participation in Ondo State, Nigeria
Author’s Details: Ifeyinwa Arum1Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Department of Political ScienceAkinsola Alaba Agagu2Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Department of Political Science2

Women political participation in Nigeria has been peripheral. This is despite arguments by some scholars that women like men are free to take active part in politics. Men through maintaining cultural stereotypes and socialization processes have confined women to the private spheres while they predominate in the public sphere. The consequence is that women shy away from operating in the public sphere including in politics. This is despite government’s commitment towards redressing gender inequality in Nigerian politics. The wide disparity between men and women in electoral offices has contumaciously remained apparent. However, some Non -Governmental Organizations have endeavored to contribute their own quota towards improvement of women political participation. This study therefore examined the role of NGOs in enhancing women political participation.  The study explored both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data were obtained through key informant interviews from the operators of these NGOs and interviews of beneficiaries of their services. It had a sample size of 30. Akure, the capital of Ondo state in Nigeria was purposively selected as a case study state because most of the NGOs are active there being the capital of Ondo State.  Country Women Association of Nigeria (COWAN) and National Council of Women Society (NCWS) were purposively selected. This is because these two NGOs are very prominent in Akure, Ondo State.  This study concludes that NGOs have impacted positively on women political participation and it recommends that NGOs should devise means of changing their leaders or management. The founder should not continue to be the leader who takes major decision until he/she dies. This is because this may not encourage innovative new ideas to be injected into the organization. NGOs should also allow people in the rural areas to feel their impact instead of operating mostly in the urban areas.
Political Participation, Democracy, Gender, Non – Governmental Organizations, Women Empowerment
[Download Full Paper] [Page 18-26]

5) Relationship between Export and Economic Growth in Pakistan by Using OlS technique
Author’s Details: (1)Qurab Ali-Student of MS-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs (2)Dr.Maria Shaikh-Assistant Professor-IBA-University of Sindh Jamshoro (3)Dr.Aisha Bashir Shah-Assistant Professor-IBA-University of Sindh Jamshoro (4)Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh-Associate Professor-SZABAC-Dokri-Sindh-Pakistan

The current research investigates the Relationship between Export and Economic Growth in Pakistan by Using OlS technique.  Data were collected from various secondary sources. Data is taken from 1990-2012 for Pakistan. Data for Real GDP, Real exports, Labor and Gross capital formation is taken from World Development Indicator. Here Gross capital formation is taken as proxy for Share of investment (SI) in GDP Economist wants to achieve economic stability through different policies. As we want to explore the impact of exports on economy through trade policy, so we construct methodology and variable construction according to exports.
A time series data from 1990 to 2012 is used here.The result based on OLS technique suggests that there is positive relationship between exports and economic growth. But strong effect is from growth to exports and exports to economic growth has smaller role as suggested by empirical results. As theory suggests that outward oriented policies were adopted by many LDCs that lead to ELG and replaced inward or import substitution policies. But this study gives support to the idea that economic growth itself induces trade flows in Pakistan from 1990-2012.
Export, Economic Growth, OlS technique
[Download Full Paper] [Page 27-33]

6) Empirical Analysis of Export Performance and its impact on Economy of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis
Author’s Details: (1)Dr.Faiz Muhammad Shaikh-Associate Professor-SZABAC-Dokri-Sindh-Pakistan

(2)Dr.Maria Shaikh-Assistant Professor-IBA-University of Sindh Jamshoro (3)Dr.Aisha Bashir Shah-Assistant Professor-IBA-University of Sindh Jamshoro (4)Nusrat Ali Abbasi-Assistant Professor-SZABAC-Dokri-Sindh-Pakistan
This research investigates the Empirical Analysis of Export Performance and its impact on Economy of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis It is taken as proxy for share of investment in GDP. It is taken as %age of GDP. Data on real exports is taken in current 2005 US$. The trend and descriptive statistics of defense expenditures in Pakistan from1990-2015. It was revealed that Pakistan growth rate was 6.3% per annum while other low income countries grew at an average annual rate of 4% in 1980s. The share of exports in GDP increased to 13% in 1990s. This increase was due to different policies taken by Pakistan such as establishment of two export processing zones, rebates on different items, excise and sales tax rebates, and tax relief for exporters etc in mid 1980s. In 1988 Government of Pakistan has also launched macro-economic Adjustment program to improve trade policy, fiscal policy and deregulation process.
Key Words:
Empirical Analysis, Economy of Pakistan, Time Series Analysis
[Download Full Paper] [Page 34-39]

7) Study and Simulate Fine Structures Solid State Lasers Using Object Oriented Programming
Author’s Details: (1)Bashir Ahmed Malik-PhD Scholar Department of Physics-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs (2)Pro. Dr.Qurban Ali Bhatti-Chairman-Department of Physics-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs (3)Dr.Mumtaz  Hussain Mahar-Dean faculty of Sciences-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs

This week is based on high resolution laser spectroscopic investigation of La I and La II free atoms. We have employed laser induced florescene / Optogalovanic technique using the liquid nitrogen cooled hollow cathode of natural Lanthanum in connection with a frequiency stabilized ring dye laser. Laser dyes Coumarin 102 and Coumarin 30 were used as the active medium in the optical blue and green region (4700-5300A) pumped by multiline ultra-voilet (337.5-356.4mm) of Kr-ion and Rhodamine 700 (LD700) pumped by multiline red (647.1-676.4mm) out put of Kr-ion laser. These optical regions were explored extensively for the first time in the present work in order to investigate the magnetic dipole coupling constant A and electric quadrupole coupling constant B. For relative frequency reference and linearization of LIF recorded data a temperature stabilized half meter long Fabry-Perot etalon with free spectral range of 149.724MHz for red region and 149.6MHz for blue and green region was used. A commercial Burleigh wave meter was employed with an accuracy of 0.01A for precise reading of the excitation wavelength. Fourier transform spectra of Lanthanum was also generated in the optical region of 3500 to 8800A in the graphical form while the data was received in digitalized form by a group in Riga (R. Ferber, A. Jarmola, M. Tamanis, Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Raina Bulvaris, Riga), The same was converted in the graphical form at TU Graz before starting the experimental work. In the FT spectra of La I and La II many Lines were unclassified. In case of La I lines some of the involved levels were also unknown and moreover the hyperfine constants of most of the levels were not known before. In case of La II, the A and B constant of most of the levels in the investigated region were already published via other optical regions. At first main emphasis was given to the measurement of hyperfine constants of already known energy levels and those levels were also investigated which were yet unknown. Through a detailed exploration, more than 155 lines of La I and La II were excited in the aforementioned optical regime of laser dyes during this work. Approximately one half of the lines investigated in this study by means of laser exciation were previously unknown La I lines found on the basis of highly resolved Fourier transform (FT) spectra, having a resolution of 0.03 cm-1. The analysis of spectral lines extracted from already recoreded FT spectra using computer programs (Filter and Classification programs) was carried out. Four new levels of La I were discovered and confirmed by the second laser excitation. We have calculated the A and B constant for 99 levels of La I and 28 levels of La II in this work. The data were compared with the already published results of the investigated levels but in different optical regime and found in good agreement within allowed experimental errors. In some cases we observed significant differences in the cited A and B values and our investigated values.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 40-59]

8) A Study of Sindhi Related and Arabic Speech Recognition System
Author’s Details: 1Dil Nawaz Hakro,1Tuba Qureshi, 2Intzar Lashari, ,1Rajota Kharwal, 1Maryam Hameed
1Institute of Information and Communication Technology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro,Pakistan
2Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro,Pakistan
Corresponding emails:

Speech Recognition is the understanding human words by computer that was spoken by the human. These words may be the human language and changing the human language will demand different challenges for the different language which means the algorithms designed for English speech recognition cannot be employed to recognize another language such as Sindhi. It requires entirely new and separate algorithms to understand spoken words for Sindhi language. In this regard, every language and script pose different challenges related to script. This paper introduces a study related to speech recognition systems available in various language specially related to Sindhi language. An emphasis has been given to architecture of automatic speech recognition system, various challenges posed by the scripts with special attention to Sindhi and its related languages.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 60-69]

9) Implementation Challenges in Sindhi Speech Recognition System
Author’s Details:1Tuba Qureshi, 1Dil Nawaz Hakro, 2Intzar Lashari, 1Rajota Kharwal, 1Maryam Hameed
1Institute of Information and Communication Technology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro,Pakistan

2Institute of Business Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro,Pakistan                                                          Corresponding emails:
Significant efforts have been made on the recognition of speech and then it has become the important type of input for the computers as well machines. Latin scripts are easy to recognize and significant advancements regarding the speech recognition have been made. Arabic and its related languages like Sindhi are still lacking the speech recognition systems. An integrated system for Sindhi language is the need of time. This paper presents the challenges posed by various scripts and speech recognition system of Sindhi as a general. The challenges faced by researchers around the world specially for developing a system for Sindhi speech recognition system. The paper is organized as introduction followed by various challenges pose in developing speech recognition systems.

Keywords: speech recognition, Sindhi, speaker, noise, controlling machines.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 60-69]