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Volume 6, Issue 8

Open Access Journal

Volume 6, Issue 8

Impact Factor 3.582

1) Pricing Strategy, Customers’ Satisfaction and Banks’ Performance in Nigeria: Evidence from Ekiti State
Author’s Details:(1)Oke, Micheal Ojo (2)Dada, Oluwabunmi (1)(2)Department Of Banking and Finance-Faculty of Management Sciences – Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti.

This study investigated pricing strategy, customer satisfaction and banks performance: evidence from Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study used qualitative research design of survey method involved primary data generated through administered questionnaires from five commercial banks in Ekiti State. The model for the study has pricing strategy and customer satisfaction as independent variables while the dependent variable is banks performance using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis the study revealed that pricing strategy serves as signals in markets, provide information and therefore influence supply and demand of financial products. Furthermore, customers identify pricing as an area where they wish to see improvements and regard these as a suitable means of increasing satisfaction thus contribute significantly to the performance of banks. Based on this result, the study recommended that, financial institutions especially banks should set appropriate pricing mechanism, ensuring that the value of products are commensurate with the fees charged, for this, customers’ satisfaction will be sustained thus reducing the incidence of switching to other banks. Also, banks should awake to new technology that will ensure optimum service delivery at a reasonable and profitable cost of services to their consumers.
Keywords: Pricing Strategy, Customer Satisfaction, Banks Performance

[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-09]

2) Poverty and School Readiness: Implications to Early Childhood Development in Zimbabwe
Author’s Details: (1)Kudzai Chinyoka (2)Moses Kufakunesu-(1)(2)Great Zimbabwe University-Department of Educational Foundations

The concept of school readiness is multi-faceted, encompassing the holistic development of the learner, physical health, social-emotional, cognitive and linguistic status of children. Children from poverty stricken households in Zimbabwe often start school at a disadvantage. This paper examines the reasons why poor children are less ready for school and evaluates intervention measures for improving their school readiness. This study is informed by Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory. A qualitative phenomenological design was used with face to face interviews as data-collection instruments, to purposively selected eight (8) teachers in two ECD centres in Masvingo, Urban. This study established that poverty decreases a child’s readiness for school through aspects of, poor health and nutrition, financial constraints, neglect, parental level of education, stressful living conditions, low-quality preschools and low attachment to primary caregivers. School readiness gaps are further widened by unavailability of play materials at home and at school. On the way forward, parents, educational policymakers, Non-Governmental Organisation and the general public should recognise the importance of the first few years in the life of a child for promoting healthy physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development. High-quality early interventions should also be designed to combat the negative factors that threaten child development. Collaborative work is also needed among Zimbabweans and all stakeholders to revisit the root causes of poverty and poor academic performance among ECD B learners.
Keywords: poverty, school readiness, academic performance, Early Child Development, phenomenological
[Download Full Paper] [Page 10-19]

3) Supervision for Quality implementation of School Curriculum blue print: The Case for Manicaland Province- Zimbabwe
Author’s Details: (1)Dr Mesheck Godfrey Sango- Zimbabwe Open University (2)Ringisai Chikohomero; (3)Kenneth John Saruchera-Zimbabwe Open University (4)Elisha Kwedungepi Nyatanga-Zimbabwe Open University

Supervision processes in education play a pivotal role in ensuring effective implementation of national educational blueprints that shape local public school curricula. In Zimbabwe, the implementation process of the recently amended curriculum that started in 2015 seems to be facing hitches at local school levels. Teachers who are the shop floor implementers seem to lack clear direction and indeed confidence in carrying out tasks expected of this amended curriculum. There seems to be a void in supervisory back up by school head teachers and other educational line managers. This study, therefore, seeks to identify supervisory strategies being used in the Zimbabwe school system and ascertain their appropriateness in guiding teachers in implementing this newly amended curriculum.
Aiyepeku (1987) defines supervision as “Assessing the state of teaching and learning with the aim of improving education standards”. In agreement, Chivore (1995) views supervision as involving the assessment of proper implementation of policy, correction of identified weaknesses, direction and redirection of defects for the attainment of stated aims, objectives and goals of an education system at a given level. That is to say supervisors operate in a field with set standards and their job is to monitor the observance of these standards and offer support so that the teachers can fully comply with the set standards. Giwa (2010) views supervision as “…a means of ascertaining how well assigned or assumed responsibilities are being carried out.” Therefore, it is the function of supervision to stimulate, direct, guide, and encourage teachers to apply instructional procedures, techniques, principles, and devices to formulate tentative plans to improve instruction (Marie Fe Callao, 2015).  
[Download Full Paper] [Page 20-26]

4) Two Adverse Reaction Cases of Tetanus Antitoxin Desensitization Injection
Author’s Details: (1)Ning Tang (2)Shuchang Li  (3)Yingmin Wang (1)Corresponding author, E-mail: and/or ,Department of Public Health, Flinders University, Australia (2)(3)Yejin Hospital, Xingtai, Hebei, China

A forty-year-man with a cut injury in his left hand was prescribed intramuscular tetanus toxoid (TT) desensitization injection after intra dermal sensitivity test at Yejin Hospital, Xingtai. The patient felt itching on upper body, dizziness, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain, diarrhea after one hour. On examination, his blood pressure and pulse were respectively 16/11kPa (Kilopascal) and 90 beats/minute, and systemic rash or hives (urticatria) were observed. He was diagnosed as adverse or allergic reaction of tetanus antitoxin. However, the symptoms of the patient were gradually alleviated and improved, and his condition was stabilized thirsty minutes after combined treatment of diphenhydramine (200mg), fluoxetine (10 mg: intramuscular injection), glucose (5%: 1000mg), vitamin C (3.0 g), hydrocortisone (100mg: intravenous infusion). The hives disappeared four hours later.
A twenty-two-year-man with an injury in one finger of his right hand was prescribed intramuscular tetanus toxoid (TT) desensitization injection after intra dermal sensitivity test at Yejin Hospital, Xingtai. The patient felt dizziness, nausea, palpitations, breathing with difficulty, itching on upper body, rash or hives (urticatria) several minutes after the booster. On examination, his blood pressure was 16/8kPa (Kilopascal). The patient was diagnosed as adverse or allergic reaction of tetanus antitoxin. Nevertheless, all of the symptoms of the patient were gradually improved and his condition was stabilized thirsty minutes after oxygen administration and combined treatment of adrenaline (0.5 mg: subcutaneous injection), diphenhydramine (200mg), fluoxetine (10 mg), glucose (5%: 1000mg), vitamin C (2.0 g), hydrocortisone (200mg: intravenous infusion). His symptoms disappeared and the hives vanished
two hours later. 
[Download Full Paper] [Page 27-32]

5) School-Based Sexual Health Education Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multiple Case Study
Author’s Details: (1)Sani A. Sadiq-(2)Abraham Charles- (3)Denford Sarah-(1)(2)(3)Institute of Health Research, University of Exeter Medical School, College House, St Luke’s Campus, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK (4)Mathews Catherine-Health Systems Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Parow Valley, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa Adolescent Health Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

School-based sexual health education is one of the most comprehensive and effective ways of promoting young people’s sexual health, reducing risky sexual behaviours and preventing sexually transmitted infections. This study investigated the design, implementation and evaluation of seven school-based sexual health education interventions in five sub-Saharan African countries, to identify features that may be associated with effectiveness or ineffectiveness on self-reported condom use and preventing sexually transmitted infections. A multiple case study design was employed. Data from each intervention were collected through documents review and interviews with key investigators. Data were analysed using a combination of case study methods. The findings confirmed that interventions that had greater numbers of features recommended by previous evidence synthesis studies were more likely to be effective. Findings suggested that young people’s sexual health needs assessment could be improved by applying ethnography, and Sexual Script research, which, in turn, could make interventions more effective. School-based interventions should consider environmental factors by incorporating community-based approaches and using ecological models as theories underpinning interventions. Interventions were also more likely to be effective if delivered by both teachers and peer educators. Finally, optimum impact is likely if young people are exposed to interventions for at least two years/academic sessions. Future intervention design should consider these features to optimise effectiveness of school-based sexual health education in sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: School-based sexual health education, sub-Saharan Africa, condom use, STI/HIV prevention, multiple case study
[Download Full Paper] [Page 33-48]