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Volume 7, Issue 5

Open Access Journal

Volume 7, Issue 5

Impact Factor 4.428

1) Arguments for Multiculturalism: An Evaluation
Author’s Details: (1)Valentine BANFEGHA NGALIM (Ph.D.),Department of the Sciences of Education, Higher Teacher Training College, Bambili, University of Bamenda, Cameroon(2)DJIA Voltaire (MA), Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Letters, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

Almost all countries around the world face problems managing differences in their public sphere. Given the multiculturality of the majority of contemporary societies, this management takes two routes; either the differences are confined into the private sphere and there is an insistence on ways the society can be kept united, or the differences are brought into the public sphere, and the society is then made up of groups, each fighting for its recognition. Multiculturalism takes the second route and advances two arguments: the claim for authenticity and the claim for recognition. This paper evaluates the consistency of these arguments with the sustainability of the State. We argue that the arguments advanced by multiculturalism are not convincing and rather lead to the fragmentation of the state. Finally, we sketch the type of education that can help to handle the question of differences without turning individuals and groups into islands.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-11]

2) Factors Influencing Buying Behavior of the Consumers: A Study of Four Wheeler Passenger Tourist Cab State of Uttarakhand
Author’s Details:(1)Dr.Abhimanyu Kumar,Assistant Professor ,Govt.PG College,Ranikhet,Uttarakhand(2) Anshu Taunk,Assistant Professor, Commerce, Devta P.G. Colleg, Morna,Bijnor

The choices before the customers are increasing rapidly, as more and foreign automobile manufacturers commence operations of India. The market has changed from a sellers’ market to a buyers’ market. Now new customers are chasing too many goods. As they are getting better products day by day price is no longer considered the single most important factor; rather, other features cast prominence. This study attempts to find out the important features which a customer considers while going to purchase of a new passenger cab. This paper presents the results of the survey of 315 tourists cab’s which owner’s wants to purchase from potential buyers. This study covers four major cities of the state of Uttarakhand. Result of the study is based on the factor analysis which indicates the nine most important factors considered by buyers while buying a car. These are safety and comfort, Luxury, Economy, Reliability, Fuel Efficiency, Ease of Finance, Variety, Color and Spaciousness, and Brand Image
[Download Full Paper] [Page 12-18]

3) Commonly Use of Oral Antibiotic Resistance in Children Urinary Tract Infection an Increasing Global Problem
Author Details:Biswajit Batabyal *- Research Scholar, OPJS University Churu, Rajasthan, India *Corresponding author:

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.[1] When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection (pyelonephritis).[2] Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.[1] Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.[2] Rarely the urine may appear bloody.[3] In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.[1] [4]

[Download Full Paper] [Page 19-25]

4) Socio-Economic Determinants to Catfish Production in Anambra State, Nigeria
Author’s Details:(1)Ezeano, CI (2)Gbughemobi, B O-Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Effect of socio-economic variables on the output levels of catfish farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria was studied using information from sixty respondents. The objective of the study were to,(i)describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, (ii) determine the profitability of catfish  production (iii) analyze the farmers’ socioeconomic factors that influence  catfish production and  (iv)identify the constraints to catfish production in the study area. A well structured questionnaire was used to collect appropriate information as relates to primary data. Percentage response was used to address objectives i and iv. Gross margin and profit analysis were used to address the objectives ii, while objective iii was addressed using multiple regression. The result of the socioeconomic characteristics shows that majority of the catfish farmers were male, youthful and had formal education. In addition, catfish was profitable in the study area with gross margin of N323,600 and profit of N155,100. Furthermore, the socioeconomic determinants to catfish farmers’ output were educational level, membership of organizations and farming experience. Finally, the major constraints to catfish production were poor access to credit, high cost of feed and poor fish seed. Farmers’ access to improved fingerlings and education and credit were recommended
   Socio-Economic , Determinants, Catfish,   Production, Nigeria
[Download Full Paper] [Page 26-33]

5) Evaluation of the Adoption of Improved Village Chicken Production Technologies in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Author’s Details: 1Ume, S I, 1Okorokwo, M.O, 2Onwujiariri, E B  and 3Agu,C I
.2Department of Animal ProductionTechnology. Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area Ebonyi State, Nigeria, 2Department of Animal Health and Production. Enugu State Polytechnic Iwollo, Enugu State of Nigeria.Corresponding Author;
Evaluation of the adoption of improved village chicken production technologies in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria was studied. The specific objectives of of the study were to; (i)describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers, (ii) assess the level of village chicken production technologies adoption by the farmers,  (iii)identify the breeds of local chicken reared by the farmers, (iv)determine the effect of the farmers’ socio economic characteristics on their technology adoption, and (v) identify the constraints to village chicken production in the study area. Purposive and multi stage random sampling technique were used to select 100 farmers for the detailed study. Data for this study were collected through the use of a structured questionnaire and oral interview. Percentage response was used to address the objectives I, ii, iii and v and Tobit analysis was used to address the objective iv of the study. The results showed that majority of the respondents were married, youthful, fairly educated and well experienced. The result of level of technology adoption, also showed that housing of bird was most adopted by the farmers, while the  least was use of artificial hatchery. In addition, majority of the respondents raised their birds through extensive system. Furthermore, determinant factors to the technology adoption were age, educational level, farming experience and extension contact. Most of the farmers in the study area, as well  reared normal feather, followed by frizzle and the least was naked neck. Furthermore, technology too costly, inadequate information on village chicken management technology, high cost of feeds and concentrates, poor access to veterinary assistance, inadequate extension contact and high cost of drugs and medication were among limiting factors to the adoption of improved village chicken production technologies in the study area. The need to increase farmers’ access to credit, extension contact and education were recommended.
Keyword; Adoption, Improved, Village, chicken, Production, Technologies, Farmers
[Download Full Paper] [Page 34-42]
6) Socio Economic Determinant factors to Access to credit by Livestock farmers in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Author’s Details:1Ume, S I, 2Ezeano, C I, 2Obiekwe, J N and 2Gbughemobi, B O
1Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu Ivo Local Government, Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria-*Corresponding author: Email:;
Analysis of access to credit by livestock farmers in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Ngeria was studied. Specifically, the objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers; identify the types of livestock kept by farmers; determine the effect of socio-economic characteristics of farmers’ on their access to credit  and identify the constraints to credit access by the farmers in the study area. The objectives I, II and  III were realized using descriptive statistics such as percentage and frequency distribution table,  objectives IV  and V were analyzed using Logistic regression  model analysis and Factor analysis respectively.120 farmers were randomly selected from 10 villages in Ivo Local Government Area. The result showed that most of the respondents were old, males, educated, married and had moderate farming experience. Among the selected livestock reared by the farmers were arranged in the order of importance; goats, pig, and sheep. The determinant factors to farmers’ access to credit were off farm income, level of education, farming experience and membership of organization. The problems facing the farmers’ access to credit were lack of collateral security, high interest rate, administrative bottleneck and late disbursement of loan. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were proffered, there is need to give farmers soft loan at reduced interest rate, forms were advised to form cooperative organization for ease access to credit and the need to enhance farmers’ access to education through adult education, workshops and seminars
Keywords; Socio – economic, Determinant factors,  Access,  Credit, Livestock farmers.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 43-52]

7) Superficial ulnar artery – Case Report
Author’s Details: (1)T Ramesh Rao (2)Suresh R Rao-Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad & Tobago. &  Subbaiah Institued of Medical Sciences, & Research Center, Shimoga, India.

Superficial ulnar artery is one among the rare variant form of ulnar artery. Ulnar artery, in its course, if it lies superficial over the flexor muscles of forearm it is known as superficial ulnar artery. The incidence of superficial ulnar artery given off by the axillary artery is estimated to be 0.7-2%. It is therefore considered as a rare occurrence. We report a unilateral case of high origin of superficial ulnar artery from the right axillary artery in a middle aged male cadaver. However such variation was not found on the opposite side. Accurate knowledge of these variation patterns is of considerable clinical importance in the conduct of reparative surgeries around the shoulder and fracture management of the humerus. These additional data of arterial anomalies to contemporary anatomical literature are of interest to clinicians, in particular vascular and plastic surgeons, orthopaedicians and radiologists. In addition knowledge of such variation is important for carrying out surgical procedure in the arm
Keywords: axillary artery, b
rachial artery, radial artery, ulnar artery, superficial ulnar artery, arterial variations
[Download Full Paper] [Page 53-57]

8) Prevalence of Mastitis and In-Vitro Antibiogram Study of the Mastitogens in Bhag-Nari Cattle
Author’s Details: (1)Shakirullah, (2)Abdullah Dostain (3)Muhammad Avais (4)Muhammad Shafee  (5)Syed Saleem Ahmed (6) Hassan Mushtaq  (7)Muhammad Farooq (1)Department of Clinical Medicine University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (2)Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan Pakistan(3)Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore(4)Center for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology(5)Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore(6)Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore(7)Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan Pakistan(5)Livestock and Dairy Development Department Quetta, Balochistan Pakistan
Corresponding author: Dr. Shakirullah

A study was designed to detect the mastitis and its mastitogens in Bhag-nai cows at district Naseerabad, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from Bhag-nari cows. All information of milk samples (n=323) were collected randomly on the basis of designed performa (Annexure.1). Two to three strips of milk from each quarter were drawn on the floor surface to examine the presence of pus, blood clots, flakes and change in color. Strip cup test was applied to detect the clinical mastitis. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT) was used for the detection of subclinical mastitis in Bhag-nari cows. Aseptic techniques were applied by using cotton swabs dipped into 70% ethanol to clean and disinfect teat end. Sterile tubes of 10ml capacity were used to collect the milk samples. The positive milk samples were kept immediately in an icebox cooler and transported to lab (CASVAB) in Quetta. Primarily each milk sample was cultured on Nutrient agar by spread out technique. Mannitol salt agar was used to culture the Staphylococcus aureus. Multiple streaking was applied to isolate the selected bacteria. On the basis of culture characters, microscopic morphology, staining method and biochemical tests bacterial isolates were identified. Prevalence of mastitis in Bhag-nari cattle in Naseerabad, Balochistan was 15.79%. Areas wise the prevalence of mastitis was 18.5%, 16.2%, 14.1% and 12.9% in DM Jamali, Chattar, Baba kot and Tamboo, respectively. Age wise prevalence in the study was 14.29%, 19.63%, 17.58% and 4.88% in age group of 3-5 years old, 6-8 years, 9-11 years and above 11 years, respectively. On the based on number of calving there was significant difference (P<0.05) among the various parity numbers. The animals milked once daily showed 17.06% mastitis as compared to 3.33% mastitis in animals daily milked more than once. There was significant difference (P<0.05). The prevalence of mastitis in well fed and under fed animals was 5.63% and 18.65%, respectively. Highly significance relation (P<0.05) was observed between the animals of satisfactory and none satisfactory udder hygiene with 6.94% and 33.64% prevalence. The most common bacterial isolates (staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus dysgalactiae) were identified in the study. The most effective drugs against isolated bacteria were Ceftiofur, Oxytetracyclinc, chlortetracycline, Norfloxacin and Cephradine
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9) The Breakup of Pakistan in the context of the Modern History Of Pakistan.(1970-71)
Author’s Details: (1)Shazia Jaffer  (2)Noor Ahmed (3)Shahida Habib Alizai (4)Abdullah Dostain (5)Muhammad Asif Kakar(1)Pakistan Study Centre University of Balochistan Quetta (2)Pakistan Study Centre University of Balochistan Quetta(3)Gender Development Studies Department University of Balochistan Quetta(4)Livestock and Dairy Development Department Balochistan(5)Department of History University of Balochistan Quetta-Corresponding; author
The research paper “The Breakup of Pakistan in the context of the Modern History Of Pakistan.(1970-71) “ Is selected to find various accesses in completing the topic. After1947 the successive government of Pakistan treated the east wing as atrociously as it was in their power It is a long story, but put in stark, brief words East Bengal was denied everything to which it was entitled as a constituent part of the federation, moral Support, Adequate  foreign exchange, majority in the national legislature ,proportionate seats in the cabinet and ministries, just and equitable representation in the federal civil service, proper share in the armed forces, etc.      This topic is very controversial and very suspicious. In fact the eastern wing was separated  because of various reasons, those are may known as, economically, politically, socially, geographically, culturally,  which are called responsible segregating and unstable relationship between these two states. After existence of Pakistan the relationship between Eastern wing and Western wing has been rendered tumultuous and since creation of newly state due to misunderstanding between two wings, many problems were created and it was changed under serious unprecedented situation which was observed on 16 December 1971.
Keywords: – Pakistan, East wing, Awami league, sheikh mujeeb, separation.
[Download Full Paper] [Page 67-75]

10) Impact of Laser on Fine Structure by Using Object Oriented Programming
Author’s Details: (1)Bashir Ahmed Malik-PhD Scholar, Department of Physics-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs Pro. (2)Dr.Qurban Ali Bhatti-Chairman Department of Physics-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs (3)Dr.Mumtaz  Hussain Mahar-Dean faculty of Sciences-Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs

This research investigates the Impact of Laser on Fine Structure by Using Object Oriented Programming.  A and electric quadrupole coupling constant B. For relative frequency reference and linearization of LIF recorded data a temperature stabilized half meter long Fabry-Perot etalon with free spectral range of 149.724MHz for red region and 149.6MHz for blue and green region was used. A commercial Burleigh wave meter was employed with an accuracy of 0.01A for precise reading of the excitation wavelength. Fourier transform spectra of Lanthanum was also generated in the optical region of 3500 to 8800A in the graphical form while the data was received in digitalized form by a group in Riga (R. Ferber, A. Jarmola, M. Tamanis, Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Raina Bulvaris, Riga), The same was converted in the graphical form at TU Graz before starting the experimental work. In the FT spectra of La I and La II many Lines were unclassified. In case of La I lines some of the involved levels were also unknown and moreover the hyperfine constants of most of the levels were not known before. In case of La II, the A and B constant of most of the levels in the investigated region were already published via other optical regions. At first main emphasis was given to the measurement of hyperfine constants of already known energy levels and those levels were also investigated which were yet unknown. Through a detailed exploration, more than 155 lines of La I and La II were excited in the aforementioned optical regime of laser dyes during this work. Approximately one half of the lines investigated in this study by means of laser exciation were previously unknown La I lines found on the basis of highly resolved Fourier transform (FT) spectra, having a resolution of 0.03 cm-1. The analysis of spectral lines extracted from already recoreded FT spectra using computer programs (Filter and Classification programs) was carried out. Four new levels of La I were discovered and confirmed by the second laser excitation
[Download Full Paper] [Page 76-81]

11) Weighted Zygmund estimates for mixed fractional integration
Author’s Details: Tulkin Mamatov-Bukhara Technological Institut of Engineering, Department of Higher mathematics. st. K. Murtazaev 15, Bukhara, Republic of Uzbekistan

In the presented work for operators the mixed fractional integration character of improvement of smoothness in comparison with smoothness of density  with weight  in case of its any continuity modulus is found out .  Zygmund type estimates are received.We consider operators of mixed fractional integration in weighted generalized Hölder spaces of a function of two variables defined by a mixed modulus of continuity
Keywords:  function of two variables, fractional integral, the mixed fractional integral, the mixed continuity modulus, weighted function, Zygmund type estimates

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[Page 82-88]