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Volume 9 , Issue 2

Volume 9, Issue 2

1) New Simple Surgical Procedure for Management of Endophthalmitis Phacoanaphylactic Glaucoma
Author’s Details: Duong Dieu * *MD, PhD. Faculty of medicine, NguyenTatThanh University-Add 300A NguyenTatThanh Street-Dist. 4-Hochiminh City-Vietnam E-mail:
Introduction: Phacolytic glaucoma (PG) was usually caused by the hypermature lens and the principal mechanism was the obstructed trabecular meshwork with the leaky lens capsule proteins. The PG with rupture crystalline capsule (anterior chamber was not observed) exactly endophthalmitis phacoanaphylactic glaucoma (EPG) is commonly misdiagnosed and was therefore refused lens extraction by local eye doctors at the district hospital level.
Objective: To introduce a new simple surgical procedure lens extraction is easily performed at the district hospital for diagnosis as well as treatment.
Methods: A simple surgical procedure for both diagnosis and treatment is proposed as follow:

  1. A clear corneal incision at 10-12 o’clock for aspirating anterior chamber fluid slowly for examining polynuclear, macrophage in diagnosis as well as for inspecting of expulsive hemorrhage which rarely occurs in these cases.
  2. Irrigation of anterior chamber: After this paracentesis, the anterior chamber and iris will be seen clearer, irrigation of the anterior chamber should be done and then lens extraction will be performed for radical treatment.
  3. IOL/posterior chamber in case of with lens capsule or IOL/ anterior chamber in case of without lens capsules.
  4. A closed corneal incision with 2 sutures.
  5. Remove these sutures 2 weeks later.

Discussion: The advantage of this technique was safe with no bleeding from the congestion of conjunctiva caused by glaucoma, can easily be observed anterior chamber after aspiration of anterior chamber fluid for diagnosis. Nucleus lens is often small in all cases so extraction of the lens is easily done. Lens extraction will be performed for radical treatment. The disadvantage is on the patient with no perception of light in vision will be restored after lens extraction depending on the during time optic nerve compressed before surgery.
Conclusion: Patients suffering from PG especially EPG should be diagnosed and nucleus lens extraction. Medical treatment for reduced IOP and aspiration of anterior chamber fluid could be done first for both diagnosis and treatment. Thereafter nucleus lens extraction is a radical treatment associated with steroid treatment that will help restore vision for patients. With this procedure mentioned above, local eye doctors at the district hospital level will easily be done for diagnosis and treatment,  helping lens extraction for patients as soon as possible.
Phacolytic glaucoma; endophthalmitis phacoanaphylactic glaucoma; nucleus lens extraction
[Download Full Paper] [Page 01-03]
Medical Treatment for Zona Pigment Glaucoma
Author’s Details: Duong Dieu * *MD, PhD. Faculty of medicine, NguyenTatThanh University Add 300A NguyenTatThanh Street-Dist. 4-Hochiminh City-Vietnam E-mail:
Pigment dispersion syndrome is seen in many conditions, such as, viral iridocyclitis, uveitis, and bilateral acute iris transillumination. The most common of which is herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus causes viral iridocyclitis, uveitis. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) does not a fatal cause but a blind cause as well as prolonged pain leads to disturbance and difficulty in treatment for patients, and may be a marker for AIDS particularly in young persons. The transition from pigment dispersion syndrome to pigmentary glaucoma was found to be 20%. The main risk factors for the transition were ocular hypertension and myopia.  Zona Pigment Glaucoma (ZPG) commonly caused by uveitis with or without blockage pupil or obstructed trabecular meshwork. Accumulation of macrophages in severe inflammation over a short period of time may acutely obstruct the meshwork and result in transient elevation of intraocular pressure in association with the exercise of dilation of the pupil. In treating pigmentary glaucoma dapiprazole, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent, was found to be effective and in preventing pressure spikes after exercise. Dapiprazole causes miosis without affecting accommodation. Laser iridotomy reduced the incidence of ocular hypertension in pigment dispersion syndrome, although the effect was less pronounced in persons older than 40 years of age.
This paper reported two typical cases of ZPG that were medical treatment and glaucoma surgery were not be done. The first was an elderly woman patient with mild IOP and the second was an older man patient with moderated IOP. Both patients are HIV (-).Medical treatment included: antiviral drugs with steroids and acetazolamide that inhibits carbonic anhydrase making lower IOP. These 2 patients have restored vision and have normalized intraocular pressure, and some satisfying results were reported here after one year follow-up. Some considerations on HZO were discussed in this paper for General Practitioners and Eye Doctors.
Keywords: Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, Zona Pigment Glaucoma, medical treatment

[Download Full Paper] [Page 04-07]

Immigrant Scholars and Their Children: Experiences and Challenges in a Time of Public Skepticism
Author’s Details: (1)Hanaa Abualsoud (2)Grace Jepkemboi

this study will highlight the challenges faced by immigrant scholars from non-dominant cultures and their children when they relocate to the United States. The purpose of this study is to describe the challenges/difficulties that immigrant scholars from non-dominant cultures face in the US in the time of public skepticism. This study is based on a qualitative tradition and used the case study approach. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews. Two Immigrants scholars at a city in the southeast participated in the study. We had the literature justify the problem and play a minor role, and we analyzed the data using text analysis/hermeneutic reflection to obtain detailed descriptions and themes. The findings are reported under three themes: (1) several moving, unstable life and reasons of immigration to the US, (2) challenges facing immigrants in the US, and (3) family dynamic changes.
Skepticism, Immigrant Scholars
[Download Full Paper] [Page 08-17]
Effect of Leadership Styles on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprise in Irepodun Ifelodun Local Government of Ekiti State
Author’s Details: (1)Ogunkolade, Ola Sunday-Department of Procurement, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti (2)Enitilo, Olalekan-Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti (3)Dada, Gbenga Olumide-Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, School of Business and Governance, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, Kwara State

The study is to examine the examined effect of leadership styles on the performance of small and medium enterprises in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government of Ekiti. Specifically, the objectives are transactional leadership styles, transformational leadership styles, laissez faire leadership style on the performance of small and medium enterprises in Irepodun/Ifelodun Local Government of Ekiti. The population for the study comprises 98 SMEs operators from sixteen selected SMEs in Irepodun/Ifelodun local government area. The sample size of the study was 79 respondents. The descriptive statistics were mainly frequency tables while the inferential statistical method was multiple regression analysis.  The results showed that inspirational motivation has a positive relationship with the performance of SMEs. It was not found significant; therefore, we accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis. These results showed that Laissez -Faire Leadership has a positive relationship with the performance of SMEs. It was found significant; therefore, we accept alternative hypotheses and reject the null hypothesis. The study concluded that they do not suggest new ways of looking at how to compete with others in the same business, also failed to seeks differing perspectives when solving problem, talks enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished and articulates a compelling vision of the future, emphasis the important of having a collective sense of mission and also considers the moral and ethical consequences of decisions, the business owners of small and medium scale enterprises in the area do not go beyond self-interest for the good of the business and also don not displays a sense of power and confidence.
Leadership Styles, Small and Medium Enterprise
[Download Full Paper] [Page 18-36]
A Rare Complication of a Common Drug- Bullous Pemphigoid Due to Isoniazid- Case Report
Author’s Details:(1)Dushantha Madegedara (2)Asela Bandara (3)S.A. Luckmy (4)Nidhika Rajapaksha
 (1) (2) (3) (4)National Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka
Corresponding author: Dushantha Madegedara (

Bullous pemphigoid is anautoimmune blistering disease with the unknown aetiology in the majority. However, certain drugs have been recognized to precipitate bullous eruption resembling pemphigoid. Though cutaneous drug reactions are commonly reported in association with first line anti tuberculous medications, bullous pemphigoid is encountered exceedingly rarely. We report a case of bullous pemphigoid secondary to isoniazid therapy.
A 55 year old female presented with cough, fever and constitutional symptoms for 2 months duration and diagnosed with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. She was treated with antituberculous therapy comprising of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide with standard doses. Eleven days later she presented with generalized erythematosus skin rash followed by blistering and diagnosed as drug induced bullous pemphigoid according to clinical, histopathological and immunological evidence. The anti-tuberculous drug was withheld and re-challenged gradually while bullous eruptions were controlled with oral prednisolone, topical steroids and dapsone therapy. Recurrence of blisters was noted while the introduction of isoniazid, hence diagnosis of isoniazid induced bullous pemphigoid was made.
In conclusion, the first line of antituberculous drugs induced bullous pemphigoid is rare. But, early recognition is vital to prevent the deleterious outcome. Serious cutaneous reactions due to anti-tuberculous medications evoke an especial situation, where careful re-challenge is required to delineate the exact culprit drug.
Key words:
Antituberculous medications, isoniazid, adverse drug reactions, bullous pemphegoid
[Download Full Paper] [Page 37-44]
Rare Cause for Common Symptoms; Adult Tracheomalacia- A Case Report
Author Details: (1)Dushantha Madegedara (2)Asela Bandara (3)Lihini Basnayake (4)Sajani Dharmadasa (5)Sachini Senevirathne (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)National Hospital, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Corresponding author: Dushantha Madegedara (

Tracheomalacia characterized by weakness of the tracheal wall is encountered uncommonly in adult clinical practice. However, many cases are under-recognized. Here we report a case of tracheomalacia in an adult, managed as poorly controlled asthma for a long duration prior to diagnosis.
A 44 year old male with a past history of mild intermittent bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented with cough and shortens of breath for 2 years duration with significant progressive symptoms associated with a change in voice over 5 months. Physical examination was unremarkable. Chest radiograph and pulmonary functions were within normal limits. However, high resolutions computerized tomography (HRCT) revealed crescent shape collapse of the trachea. Near complete obliteration of tracheal lumen due to approximation of anterior and posterior tracheal walls was noted in bronchoscopy, confirming the diagnosis of tracheomalacia. He underwent successful implantation of endotracheal silicon stent with significant resolution of symptoms.
In conclusion, clinical features of tracheomalacia are non-specific. Therefore it is likely to be under-recognized and managed as for other common respiratory pathologies. The high degree of suspicion on this uncommon condition is required to avoid misdiagnosis.
Key words:
Tracheomalacia, Bronchial asthma, intratracheal stenting
[Download Full Paper] [Page 45-50]
Stories About New Avenues To Do Research, Part I
Author Details: Jeroen Staring
Retired Dr Jeroen Staring taught mathematics at secondary schools in The Netherlands. His 2005 Medical Sciences dissertation describes the life, work and technique of F. Matthias Alexander. In 2013 he successfully defended a second dissertation, on the early history of the NYC Bureau of Educational Experiments.

This (first part of a three-part) case study loosely investigates the results of several new avenues of doing research — via, and other websites
Key words:
Do-With Toys™; fashion and dress history; the history of toy design; new avenues of conducting research; The Woman Voter and The Newsletter. Helen Marot; Caroline Pratt. Charles Darwin; William Zorach.

[Download Full Paper] [Page 51-56]
Rationales for the Scarcity of Human Capital in Algeria and the Means to Perk Up It
Author Details: (1)Bouti Amel, School of International Trade and Economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang China (2)Yousaf Ali Khan, School of Statistics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang China (3)Muneeb Ahmad, School of Finance, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang China, (4)Zhaoyang Wu, School of International Trade and Economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang China, (5)Azaddine Alami, School of Finance of Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang China,

The issue of human capital administration is one of the most fundamental points that all chiefs, organizers and managers are constantly keen on, in light of the fact that the human factor is the genuine factor and the primary wellspring of development and advancement of foundations. Like in different nations human capital administration is a significant part of the economy of Algeria. Algerian government has given a lot important to improve the human capital from 1997 to 2019; numerous elements go about as hindrances in the advancement of human capital in Algerian economy like as, absence of gifted work, preparing, training, viable administration, abilities, medical problems and some other authoritative components remember for this examination to give proficient data to Algerian government. This data is likewise valuable for private associations, chiefs, organizers, inside and outer financial specialists for their future business premium and interests in any field where human capital is a need. Social divisions can assist Algeria with producing knowledgeable, prepared, gifted and sound and gainful work power in the nation. Without enough budgetary portions for these social divisions the nation can’t deliver the normal sum and nature of human capital and unfit to accomplish the ideal objective or target set by the arrangement producers.
Human Capital, Algerian Economy, Organizational factors
[Download Full Paper] [Page 57-67]
On the Communication Requirements of IEEE 802.Xxx Standardization: Evaluating Cognition Performance in WLAN
Author’s Details: Jinadu Olayinka1, Ijawoye Rafiu2, Ijarotimi Olumide3, Owa Victor4,  Akinboyewa Nelson5
1,4Dept of Computer Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences,Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria 2,3Dept of Electrical Electronics, Faculty of Engineering Technology,Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria 5Dept of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology,Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria
Reconfiguration Communication System (RCS) intelligently provides interoperating platforms that enable communication with lower standards. Incremental demand for wireless services required justifiable capacity improvement of communication protocols. To ugrade existing wireless systems using APs computational techniques, the operational capability is facilitated flexible scaling and transmission reliability. This paper examines the communication requirements of relevant IEEE standardizations in  cognition and interoperations. The impact of larger frame sizes and high delivery rates were examined in Ad-hoc wlan configuration. Using multi-user multiple inputs multiple outputs (MIMO) technology as communication elements in bands below 6GHz, Throughput performance was investigated using enterprise Network Simulator Package (eNSP). A significant reduction in packet errors was recorded in the simulations. This suggests an improved throughput, provided by flexible switching over long-distances. IEEE802.11ac standard implementation confirmed efficient cognition while IEEE 802.22 technology established interoperability techniques during reconfigurations. Protocol amendment to IEEE 802.11a standardization provided higher throughput measure characterized for transmissions below 6GHz traffics.  IEEE 802.11af enables multiple multimedia data streaming while co-existence of multiple users on the network guaranteed system scaling. The co-existence of increasingly served users were provisioned by IEEE 8802.16h, while  interoperation was facilitated by 802.22 to encourage dynamic resource utilization. Also, dual-stack AP peers in P2P modes provided much flexibility in parameter switching to enable fast handoffs. Support to local network management systems by  reconfiguration made entire network scale with reduced latency and resultantly improved throughput performance was attributed to IEEE 802.11ac, 802.11af, 802.16h and IEEE 802.22 standardization implementations.
Keywords: IEEE 802.11ac, 802.11af, 802.16h, standardization     

[Download Full Paper] [Page 68-75]
Links in the Value Chain, Supply Chain of Vietnam’s Agricultural Industry
Author Details: Thi Thu Hien Phan – University of Economics – Technology for Industries – Correspondence: Thi Thu Hien Phan, 456 Minh Khai, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi

The article has an overview of Vietnam’s agricultural industry, opportunities and challenges in the current context. Analyzing the role and importance of the agricultural supply chain, thereby analyzing the strengths of the value chain to help Vietnam’s agricultural sector bring more added value. The author also conducted an overview of the supply chain, the value chain from which to apply to assess the achievements as well as the shortcomings and challenges of Vietnam’s agricultural industry. Finally, the author has proposed recommendations and solutions to improve the efficiency of Vietnam’s agricultural value chain and supply chain
Key Words;
Value chain, supply chain, agricultural industry
[Download Full Paper] [Page 76-84]
11) Links in the Value Chain, Supply Chain of Vietnam’s Agricultural Industry
Author Details:
Thi Lua Pham-University of Economics – Technology for Industries-Correspondence: Thi Lua Pham, 456 Minh Khai, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi
The paper has conducted an overview of the theoretical basis of barriers in international trade, technical barriers trade, technical barriers in international trade. From there an overview of the standards of technical barriers to trade in the EU market of Vietnam’s leather and footwear industry. Finally, the author conducted an assessment of the footwear industry’s ability to meet the technical barriers in the EU market of the Vietnamese leather and footwear industry.
Key Words;
barriers in international trade, technical barriers trade, technical barriers in international trade

[Download Full Paper] [Page 85-95]
Sustainable Trade Development in Vietnam
Author’s Details: (1)Thi Thanh Hai Duong (2)Thanh Huong Vu-(1) (2)University of Economics – Technology for Industrie-Correspondence: Thi Thanh Hai Duong, 456 Minh Khai, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi
The study was conducted for the purpose of an overview of the theoretical basis for sustainable trade development. From the theoretical basis of sustainable trade, we analyze the current situation of trade activities between Vietnam and India in the direction of sustainable development. It details the achievements and limitations that need to be overcome in international trade activities between Vietnam and India. From there, make recommendations to promote international trade between Vietnam and India. Help Vietnam increasingly develop and integrate internationally.
Key Words;
sustainable trade development, Vietnam

[Download Full Paper] [Page 96-102]
Assessment of Current Situation of Vietnam’s International Economic Integration
Author’s Details: Xuan Hung Nguyen-School of Trade and International Economics, National Economics University-Correspondence: Xuan Hung Nguyen, 207 Giai Phong, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi
The article discusses international economic integration. Specifically, the author reviews the studies on international economic integration from which to assess the status of international economic integration activities in Vietnam. Assess the current situation and analyze the achievements as well as the shortcomings and challenges of international economic integration in Vietnam. Finally, the author presents solutions to enhance the efficiency of international economic integration activities in Vietnam
Key Words;
International economic integration, Vietnam

[Download Full Paper] [Page 103-110]
14) Designing For Sheet Metal Fabrication of Cocoa Deposing and Winnowing Machine
Author Details: Rufus Ogbuka Chime-Mechanical Engineering Department-Institute of Management and Technology

(IMT)Enugu. Nigeria –
As with many modern fabrication techniques, sheet metal manufacturing can be automated and parts produced directly from CAD models. The technology uses a variety of materials and a range of processes for shaping finished components and products. Perhaps most important, in a world of mass production, sheet metal fabrication is highly scalable. While setup for the first piece can be costly, the price per piece drops quickly as the volume increases. This is, of course, true of many processes, but cost-per-piece for sheet metal generally drops more steeply than for a subtractive process like machining. Depending on the application, sheet metal offers advantages, not just over nonmetal alternatives but over other types of metal fabrication as well. Compared to machining, it generally has a significantly lower material cost. Rather than starting with a block of material, much of which will be machined away, sheet metal lets you buy what you need and use what you need. The remainder of a metal sheet is still usable, while swarf—the shavings removed in machining—must be recycled. The technology uses a variety of materials and a range of processes for shaping finished components and products. Cocoa beans contain about 50% fat. It is useful in the production of: lightening oil, ointments, candles, soaps and medicine. Cocoa is best known for its derived products, especially chocolates, rather than its original botanical form i.e. fruits and beans. These products are consumed in great demand worldwide due to its unique flavour and aroma that cannot be replaced by other plant products [Wood and Lass, Cocoa is prominent commercial cash crop grown globally, it is one the economic cash crop produced in west Africa. The most useful and valuable part of the crop is the bean. The processing of cocoa after harvest, include the breaking of the pods, extraction fermentation, drying dehulling and winnowing of the bean for production of cocoa butter beverage and cake. Traditionally, the process of breaking cocoa pods is done manually using wood and asses. This is an arduous task apart from the large labor requirement and time consumed during the operation.], the cutlass used, damages the beans resulting a poor quality of the beans bagged. The machine would be fabricated using locally available materials assemble and tested at a relatively low would be powered electrically using a prime mover of about 5-7.5hp. The machine to be develop would be simple to develop, assemble easy to maintain and affordable for small cooperative farmer
Key Words; Design, Sheet Metal, Fabrication, Cocoa Deposing and Machine

[Download Full Paper] [Page 111-125]